|Table 4-1. Unemployment rate among doctoral scientists and engineers, by field of doctorate: 2013|
|Biological/ agricultural/ environmental life sciences||2.2||0.20|
|Agricultural/ food sciences||1.8||0.55|
|Cell/ molecular biology||2.3||0.55|
|Environmental life sciences||S||S|
|Other biological sciences||2.2||0.25|
|Computer/ information sciences||1.8||0.50|
|Chemistry, except biochemistry||3.0||0.45|
|Earth/ atmospheric/ ocean sciencesa||1.5||0.50|
|Other social sciences||2.0||0.50|
|Aerospace/ aeronautical/ astronautical engineering||D||D|
|Electrical/ computer engineering||2.2||0.45|
|Materials/ metallurgical engineering||2.1||0.65|
|Codes used in data tables: * = suppressed when population estimate < 50. D = suppressed to avoid disclosure of confidential information. S = suppressed for reliability; coefficient of variation exceeds publication standards.
SE = standard error.
a Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences includes other physical sciences.
|NOTES: Labor force is defined as those employed (E) plus those unemployed and seeking work (U). Population is defined as all science, engineering, or health doctorate holders under age 76, residing in the United States during the week of 1 February 2013, who earned doctorates from U.S. institutions. Unemployment rate = U/(E+U).|
|SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 2013.|
|Data from survey cycle 2013, as of 18 February 2014.|