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Table 34. Postdoctoral appointees in science, engineering, and health in all institutions, by field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race: 2006–12

Field 2006 2007olda 2007newa 2008 2009 2010b,c 2011c 2012
All surveyed fields 49,343 50,712 50,840 54,164 57,805 63,439 62,639 62,851
   U.S. citizens and permanent residents 21,147 22,022 22,103 24,915 27,105 30,155 29,712 29,864
      Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 1,276 1,359 1,351
      Not Hispanic or Latino                
         American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 97 90 85
         Asian na na na na na 5,944 5,638 5,367
         Black or African American na na na na na 980 1,042 1,104
         Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 94 85 99
         White na na na na na 17,256 17,286 17,280
         More than one race na na na na na 143 221 186
      Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 4,365 3,991 4,392
   Temporary visa holders 28,196 28,690 28,737 29,249 30,700 33,284 32,927 32,987
   Science and engineering 34,887 35,894 36,223 38,203 40,804 44,320 44,121 43,841
      U.S. citizens and permanent residents 14,111 14,903 15,107 16,274 18,175 20,430 20,340 20,214
         Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 813 901 862
         Not Hispanic or Latino                
            American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 62 66 51
            Asian na na na na na 3,592 3,502 3,330
            Black or African American na na na na na 564 610 615
            Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 53 53 63
            White na na na na na 11,980 11,965 11,835
            More than one race na na na na na 81 161 112
         Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 3,285 3,082 3,346
      Temporary visa holders 20,776 20,991 21,116 21,929 22,629 23,890 23,781 23,627
      Science 30,245 30,986 31,281 32,741 34,388 37,351 37,335 36,738
         U.S. citizens and permanent residents 12,573 13,312 13,513 14,375 15,800 17,793 17,706 17,476
            Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 744 799 750
            Not Hispanic or Latino                
               American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 58 62 48
               Asian na na na na na 2,966 2,895 2,736
               Black or African American na na na na na 493 533 544
               Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 45 46 61
               White na na na na na 10,676 10,730 10,510
               More than one race na na na na na 70 137 96
            Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 2,741 2,504 2,731
         Temporary visa holders 17,672 17,674 17,768 18,366 18,588 19,558 19,629 19,262
         Agricultural sciences 927 948 985 1,147 1,083 1,190 1,256 1,290
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 384 413 422 604 573 609 655 715
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 24 32 31
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 4 5 2
                  Asian na na na na na 116 108 121
                  Black or African American na na na na na 22 22 21
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 1 4
                  White na na na na na 387 389 426
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 2 4
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 56 96 106
            Temporary visa holders 543 535 563 543 510 581 601 575
         Biological sciences 18,807 19,218 19,109 19,827 20,159 21,726 21,107 20,086
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 7,825 8,176 8,174 8,615 9,148 10,283 9,877 9,194
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 473 461 413
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 27 33 23
                  Asian na na na na na 1,987 1,863 1,664
                  Black or African American na na na na na 312 303 315
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 30 32 36
                  White na na na na na 5,901 5,742 5,304
                  More than one race na na na na na 44 60 49
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 1,509 1,383 1,390
            Temporary visa holders 10,982 11,042 10,935 11,212 11,011 11,443 11,230 10,892
         Communicationa ne ne 30 32 38 62 67 58
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents ne ne 17 20 28 38 38 32
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 2 2 1
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 1 4 1
                  Black or African American na na na na na 2 2 1
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 0
                  White na na na na na 26 19 16
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 1 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 7 10 13
            Temporary visa holders ne ne 13 12 10 24 29 26
         Computer sciences 467 516 456 493 594 763 759 760
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 168 191 166 195 272 308 312 297
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 8 12 14
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 2 1 0
                  Asian na na na na na 58 60 60
                  Black or African American na na na na na 5 10 11
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 2 0
                  White na na na na na 185 179 151
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 3 1
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 50 45 60
            Temporary visa holders 299 325 290 298 322 455 447 463
         Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 1,495 1,322 1,250 1,339 1,424 1,740 1,774 1,956
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 735 671 612 643 714 953 987 1,069
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 28 37 41
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 7 3 3
                  Asian na na na na na 76 120 119
                  Black or African American na na na na na 9 11 15
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 1 1
                  White na na na na na 648 678 737
                  More than one race na na na na na 4 22 12
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 181 115 141
            Temporary visa holders 760 651 638 696 710 787 787 887
         Family and consumer sciences and human sciencesa ne ne 8 19 22 30 52 58
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents ne ne 4 15 15 23 41 43
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 0 1 2
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 1
                  Asian na na na na na 3 2 3
                  Black or African American na na na na na 2 4 3
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 0
                  White na na na na na 18 30 34
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 0 4 0
            Temporary visa holders ne ne 4 4 7 7 11 15
         Mathematical sciences 579 621 624 723 737 791 830 902
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 283 303 303 356 383 415 419 456
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 11 17 18
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 1 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 32 38 36
                  Black or African American na na na na na 4 10 6
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 1
                  White na na na na na 288 273 288
                  More than one race na na na na na 3 4 5
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 76 77 102
            Temporary visa holders 296 318 321 367 354 376 411 446
         Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studiesa ne ne 244 348 459 785 704 742
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents ne ne 156 193 237 459 390 427
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 17 15 19
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 4 1
                  Asian na na na na na 45 43 52
                  Black or African American na na na na na 7 20 17
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 3
                  White na na na na na 287 269 291
                  More than one race na na na na na 2 0 5
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 101 39 39
            Temporary visa holders ne ne 88 155 222 326 314 315
         Neurosciencea na na 285 343 645 838 1,398 1,525
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents na na 123 140 339 392 691 737
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 15 34 22
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 3 1 1
                  Asian na na na na na 64 80 96
                  Black or African American na na na na na 14 13 14
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 1 3 1
                  White na na na na na 224 400 438
                  More than one race na na na na na 3 3 2
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 68 157 163
            Temporary visa holders na na 162 203 306 446 707 788
          Physical sciences 6,703 6,760 6,719 6,885 7,447 7,583 7,490 7,430
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 2,337 2,478 2,470 2,512 2,834 3,011 2,964 3,109
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 99 106 116
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 11 7 12
                  Asian na na na na na 486 483 483
                  Black or African American na na na na na 59 84 78
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 12 6 8
                  White na na na na na 1,850 1,860 1,883
                  More than one race na na na na na 7 36 13
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 487 382 516
            Temporary visa holders 4,366 4,282 4,249 4,373 4,613 4,572 4,526 4,321
         Psychology 873 1,106 1,088 1,077 1,219 1,132 1,124 1,132
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 603 740 733 753 892 813 795 843
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 39 36 42
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 1 1 0
                  Asian na na na na na 53 52 47
                  Black or African American na na na na na 25 20 28
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 2 1 1
                  White na na na na na 554 575 629
                  More than one race na na na na na 4 1 2
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 135 109 94
            Temporary visa holders 270 366 355 324 327 319 329 289
         Social sciences 394 495 483 508 561 711 774 799
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 238 340 333 329 365 489 537 554
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 28 46 31
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 2 7 5
                  Asian na na na na na 45 42 54
                  Black or African American na na na na na 32 34 35
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 6
                  White na na na na na 308 316 313
                  More than one race na na na na na 3 5 3
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 71 87 107
            Temporary visa holders 156 155 150 179 196 222 237 245
      Engineering 4,642 4,908 4,942 5,462 6,416 6,969 6,786 7,103
         U.S. citizens and permanent residents 1,538 1,591 1,594 1,899 2,375 2,637 2,634 2,738
            Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 69 102 112
            Not Hispanic or Latino                
               American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 4 4 3
               Asian na na na na na 626 607 594
               Black or African American na na na na na 71 77 71
               Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 8 7 2
               White na na na na na 1,304 1,235 1,325
               More than one race na na na na na 11 24 16
            Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 544 578 615
         Temporary visa holders 3,104 3,317 3,348 3,563 4,041 4,332 4,152 4,365
         Aerospace engineering 165 178 178 154 168 212 202 170
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 48 59 59 56 69 69 62 64
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 2 1 1
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 17 13 20
                  Black or African American na na na na na 2 1 1
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 0
                  White na na na na na 34 25 32
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 0 2
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 14 22 8
            Temporary visa holders 117 119 119 98 99 143 140 106
         Agricultural engineering 116 139 139 135 110 119 129 133
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 34 26 26 38 32 37 45 46
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 4 1 2
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 1
                  Asian na na na na na 17 17 14
                  Black or African American na na na na na 3 4 3
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 2 1
                  White na na na na na 13 19 23
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 0 1
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 0 2 1
            Temporary visa holders 82 113 113 97 78 82 84 87
         Architecturea na na 5 11 22 10 16 6
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents na na 1 4 13 5 7 3
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 0 0 0
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 0 3 0
                  Black or African American na na na na na 1 0 0
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 0
                  White na na na na na 2 4 2
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 2 0 1
            Temporary visa holders na na 4 7 9 5 9 3
         Biomedical engineering 591 640 640 710 960 1,023 1,069 1,161
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 230 289 289 315 451 471 523 531
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 15 20 20
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 1 2 0
                  Asian na na na na na 123 149 134
                  Black or African American na na na na na 27 23 21
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 1 1 0
                  White na na na na na 223 251 279
                  More than one race na na na na na 1 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 80 77 77
            Temporary visa holders 361 351 351 395 509 552 546 630
         Chemical engineering 735 758 790 880 1,084 1,077 1,137 1,098
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 216 265 272 299 408 380 404 388
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 13 18 23
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 95 96 88
                  Black or African American na na na na na 7 10 8
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 2 3 0
                  White na na na na na 212 230 216
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 6 4
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 51 41 49
            Temporary visa holders 519 493 518 581 676 697 733 710
         Civil engineeringa 458 419 417 465 535 571 551 590
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 203 164 159 171 212 242 223 236
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 8 8 17
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 2 1 0
                  Asian na na na na na 45 28 42
                  Black or African American na na na na na 3 3 3
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 0
                  White na na na na na 115 105 105
                  More than one race na na na na na 2 4 1
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 67 74 68
            Temporary visa holders 255 255 258 294 323 329 328 354
         Electrical engineering 721 885 884 987 1,025 1,095 1,035 1,152
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 233 246 247 375 323 399 369 450
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 4 9 14
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 1 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 92 79 86
                  Black or African American na na na na na 8 11 13
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 2 0 0
                  White na na na na na 164 154 173
                  More than one race na na na na na 1 3 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 127 113 164
            Temporary visa holders 488 639 637 612 702 696 666 702
         Engineering science 224 192 183 214 226 236 281 292
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 82 59 55 101 112 94 109 113
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 3 7 4
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 20 14 13
                  Black or African American na na na na na 2 0 1
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 0
                  White na na na na na 66 65 67
                  More than one race na na na na na 1 1 2
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 2 22 26
            Temporary visa holders 142 133 128 113 114 142 172 179
         Industrial engineering 51 73 71 115 109 151 121 127
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 17 23 19 36 50 72 56 64
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 1 3 2
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 11 6 8
                  Black or African American na na na na na 4 3 2
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 1 0 0
                  White na na na na na 46 34 36
                  More than one race na na na na na 1 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 8 10 16
            Temporary visa holders 34 50 52 79 59 79 65 63
         Mechanical engineering 644 725 722 784 948 1,021 889 985
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 174 199 198 224 281 350 324 338
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 8 11 10
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 96 75 67
                  Black or African American na na na na na 5 5 6
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 0
                  White na na na na na 163 135 162
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 4 2
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 78 94 91
            Temporary visa holders 470 526 524 560 667 671 565 647
         Metallurgical and materials engineering 571 555 564 605 758 841 860 854
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 180 136 141 147 243 301 306 290
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 6 17 13
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 1 2
                  Asian na na na na na 73 73 75
                  Black or African American na na na na na 3 10 6
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 2 0 0
                  White na na na na na 148 136 126
                  More than one race na na na na na 4 5 2
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 65 64 66
            Temporary visa holders 391 419 423 458 515 540 554 564
         Mining engineering 11 4 5 5 4 4 4 5
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 5 2 2 1 1 1 2 2
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 0 0 2
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Black or African American na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 0
                  White na na na na na 1 2 0
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 0 0 0
            Temporary visa holders 6 2 3 4 3 3 2 3
         Nuclear engineering 85 77 73 85 90 107 111 120
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 27 26 25 31 35 55 48 49
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 0 1 1
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 6 8 7
                  Black or African American na na na na na 1 3 2
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 1 0
                  White na na na na na 30 21 23
                  More than one race na na na na na 1 0 1
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 17 14 15
            Temporary visa holders 58 51 48 54 55 52 63 71
         Petroleum engineering 18 22 22 28 36 44 35 53
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 3 7 7 5 12 12 10 8
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 1 3 1
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 4 3 4
                  Black or African American na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 0
                  White na na na na na 4 2 2
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 1 1
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 3 1 0
            Temporary visa holders 15 15 15 23 24 32 25 45
         Engineering nec 252 241 249 284 341 458 346 357
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 86 90 94 96 133 149 146 156
               Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 4 3 2
               Not Hispanic or Latino                
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na na na 27 43 36
                  Black or African American na na na na na 5 4 5
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 0 0 1
                  White na na na na na 83 52 79
                  More than one race na na na na na 0 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 30 44 33
            Temporary visa holders 166 151 155 188 208 309 200 201
   Health 14,456 14,818 14,617 15,961 17,001 19,119 18,518 19,010
      U.S. citizens and permanent residents 7,036 7,119 6,996 8,641 8,930 9,725 9,372 9,650
         Hispanic or Latino na na na na na 463 458 489
         Not Hispanic or Latino                
            American Indian or Alaska Native na na na na na 35 24 34
            Asian na na na na na 2,352 2,136 2,037
            Black or African American na na na na na 416 432 489
            Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na na na 41 32 36
            White na na na na na 5,276 5,321 5,445
            More than one race na na na na na 62 60 74
         Unknown ethnicity and race na na na na na 1,080 909 1,046
      Temporary visa holders 7,420 7,699 7,621 7,320 8,071 9,394 9,146 9,360

na = not applicable; data were not collected at this level of detail. ne = not eligible; data were not collected for this field prior to 2007.
nec = not elsewhere classified.
a In 2007, eligible fields were reclassified, newly eligible fields were added, and the survey was redesigned to improve coverage and coding of eligible units. “2007new” presents data as collected in 2007; “2007old” shows data as they would have been collected in prior years. The science fields Communication and Family and consumer sciences and human sciences were newly eligible in 2007; data for these two fields begin in 2007new. The science field Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies was also added to the code list in 2007; some data reported in this field were reported under other fields before 2007 and are included in those fields in 2007old. Neuroscience is reported as a separate field of science in 2007new; data were reported under health field Neurology in 2007old and previous years. Architecture is reported as a separate field of engineering in 2007new; data were reported under Civil engineering in 2007old and previous years. See appendix A in http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf10307/ for more detail.
b In 2010, the postdoc section of the survey was expanded, and significant effort was made to ensure that appropriate personnel were providing postdoc data (see appendix A for more information). Thus, it is unclear how much of the increases in 2010 and later years over 2009 and prior years are from growth in postdoctoral appointments and how much are from improved data collection. More information on the changes to the postdoc data collection is available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf13334/.
c Postdoc data from 2010 and 2011 were reimputed following the 2012 data collection; these data supersede those contained in previous reports.
NOTES: “Field” refers to the field of the unit that reports postdocs to the GSS.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, NSF-NIH Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering.
Data from survey cycle Fall 2012, as of December 2013.