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Table 38. Postdoctoral appointees in science, engineering, and health in all institutions, by detailed field, sex, and citizenship: 2012

  Sex Citizenship
Field Postdoctoral
appointees
Male Female U.S. citizens and
permanent residents
Temporary visa holders
All surveyed fields 62,851 38,166 24,685 29,864 32,987
    Science and engineering 43,841 28,176 15,665 20,214 23,627
        Science 36,738 22,662 14,076 17,476 19,262
            Agricultural sciences 1,290 777 513 715 575
            Biological sciences 20,086 11,299 8,787 9,194 10,892
                Anatomy 287 148 139 129 158
                Biochemistry 2,232 1,375 857 918 1,314
                Biology 2,268 1,273 995 1,130 1,138
                Biometry and epidemiology 536 289 247 286 250
                Biophysics 185 120 65 71 114
                Botany 596 357 239 346 250
                Cell biology 2,574 1,447 1,127 1,188 1,386
                Ecology 205 108 97 144 61
                Entomology and parasitology 266 144 122 149 117
                Genetics 1,407 815 592 666 741
                Microbiology, immunology, and virology 2,437 1,293 1,144 1,137 1,300
                Nutrition 224 76 148 135 89
                Pathology 1,582 863 719 626 956
                Pharmacology 1,383 780 603 643 740
                Physiology 1,399 784 615 638 761
                Zoology 87 51 36 75 12
                Biological sciences nec 2,418 1,376 1,042 913 1,505
            Communicationa 58 37 21 32 26
            Computer sciences 760 605 155 297 463
            Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 1,956 1,212 744 1,069 887
                Atmospheric sciences 209 138 71 88 121
                Geosciences 637 411 226 283 354
                Oceanography 446 243 203 266 180
                Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences nec 664 420 244 432 232
            Family and consumer sciences and human sciencesa 58 14 44 43 15
            Mathematical sciences 902 709 193 456 446
                Mathematics and applied mathematics 782 620 162 406 376
                Statistics 120 89 31 50 70
            Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studiesa 742 479 263 427 315
            Neurosciencea 1,525 864 661 737 788
            Physical sciences 7,430 5,769 1,661 3,109 4,321
                Astronomy 509 361 148 272 237
                Chemistry 4,016 3,050 966 1,520 2,496
                Physics 2,651 2,163 488 1,176 1,475
                Physical sciences nec 254 195 59 141 113
            Psychology 1,132 490 642 843 289
                Clinical psychology 104 32 72 93 11
                Psychology, general 613 282 331 430 183
                Psychology nec 415 176 239 320 95
            Social sciences 799 407 392 554 245
                Agricultural economics 60 37 23 42 18
                Anthropology (cultural and social) 96 43 53 75 21
                Economics (except agricultural) 50 35 15 20 30
                Geography 69 42 27 39 30
                History and philosophy of science 14 8 6 6 8
                Linguistics 31 14 17 21 10
                Political science 176 101 75 118 58
                Sociology 97 35 62 70 27
                Sociology and anthropology 2 1 1 2 0
                Social sciences nec 204 91 113 161 43
        Engineering 7,103 5,514 1,589 2,738 4,365
            Aerospace engineering 170 139 31 64 106
            Agricultural engineering 133 90 43 46 87
            Architecturea 6 3 3 3 3
            Biomedical engineering 1,161 773 388 531 630
            Chemical engineering 1,098 830 268 388 710
            Civil engineeringa 590 441 149 236 354
            Electrical engineering 1,152 967 185 450 702
            Engineering science 292 233 59 113 179
            Industrial engineering 127 100 27 64 63
            Mechanical engineering 985 835 150 338 647
            Metallurgical and materials engineering 854 682 172 290 564
            Mining engineering 5 4 1 2 3
            Nuclear engineering 120 108 12 49 71
            Petroleum engineering 53 39 14 8 45
            Engineering nec 357 270 87 156 201
    Health 19,010 9,990 9,020 9,650 9,360
        Clinical medicine 16,361 8,601 7,760 8,249 8,112
            Anesthesiology 436 255 181 193 243
            Cardiology 787 471 316 381 406
            Endocrinology 473 215 258 224 249
            Gastroenterology 319 166 153 138 181
            Hematology 367 192 175 165 202
            Neurologya 952 501 451 425 527
            Obstetrics and gynecology 307 108 199 159 148
            Oncology and cancer research 1,923 1,054 869 790 1,133
            Ophthalmology 518 277 241 214 304
            Otorhinolaryngology 144 84 60 65 79
            Pediatrics 1,583 705 878 958 625
            Preventive medicine and community health 730 310 420 484 246
            Psychiatry 1,089 405 684 764 325
            Pulmonary disease 279 150 129 162 117
            Radiology 979 651 328 373 606
            Surgery 1,373 844 529 606 767
            Clinical medicine nec 4,102 2,213 1,889 2,148 1,954
        Other health 2,649 1,389 1,260 1,401 1,248
            Dental sciences 343 188 155 145 198
            Nursing 76 10 66 64 12
            Pharmaceutical sciences 982 622 360 443 539
            Speech pathology and audiology 59 21 38 47 12
            Veterinary sciences 534 223 311 363 171
            Other health nec 655 325 330 339 316

nec = not elsewhere classified.
a In 2007, eligible fields were reclassified, newly eligible fields were added, and the survey was redesigned to improve coverage and coding of eligible units. “2007new” presents data as collected in 2007; “2007old” shows data as they would have been collected in prior years. The science fields Communication and Family and consumer sciences and human sciences were newly eligible in 2007; data for these two fields begin in 2007new. The science field Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies was also added to the code list in 2007; some data reported in this field were reported under other fields before 2007 and are included in those fields in 2007old. Neuroscience is reported as a separate field of science in 2007new; data were reported under health field Neurology in 2007old and previous years. Architecture is reported as a separate field of engineering in 2007new; data were reported under Civil engineering in 2007old and previous years. See appendix A in http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf10307/ for more detail.
NOTES: “Field” refers to the field of the unit that reports postdocs to the GSS.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, NSF-NIH Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering, 2012.
Data from survey cycle Fall 2012, as of December 2013.