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Table 34. Postdoctoral appointees in science, engineering, and health in all institutions, by field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race: 2007–13
Field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race 2007a 2008 2009 2010b, c 2011c 2012 2013
All surveyed fields 50,840 54,164 57,805 63,439 62,639 62,851 61,942
   U.S. citizens and permanent residents 22,103 24,915 27,105 30,155 29,712 29,864 29,546
      Hispanic or Latino na na na 1,276 1,359 1,351 1,490
      Not Hispanic or Latino              
         American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 97 90 85 121
         Asian na na na 5,944 5,638 5,367 5,440
         Black or African American na na na 980 1,042 1,104 1,132
         Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 94 85 99 77
         White na na na 17,256 17,286 17,280 17,348
         More than one race na na na 143 221 186 263
      Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 4,365 3,991 4,392 3,675
   Temporary visa holders 28,737 29,249 30,700 33,284 32,927 32,987 32,396
   Science and engineering 36,223 38,203 40,804 44,320 44,121 43,841 43,395
      U.S. citizens and permanent residents 15,107 16,274 18,175 20,430 20,340 20,214 20,257
         Hispanic or Latino na na na 813 901 862 961
         Not Hispanic or Latino              
            American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 62 66 51 71
            Asian na na na 3,592 3,502 3,330 3,526
            Black or African American na na na 564 610 615 667
            Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 53 53 63 50
            White na na na 11,980 11,965 11,835 11,953
            More than one race na na na 81 161 112 165
         Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 3,285 3,082 3,346 2,864
      Temporary visa holders 21,116 21,929 22,629 23,890 23,781 23,627 23,138
      Science 31,281 32,741 34,388 37,351 37,335 36,738 36,289
         U.S. citizens and permanent residents 13,513 14,375 15,800 17,793 17,706 17,476 17,551
            Hispanic or Latino na na na 744 799 750 845
            Not Hispanic or Latino              
               American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 58 62 48 68
               Asian na na na 2,966 2,895 2,736 2,898
               Black or African American na na na 493 533 544 607
               Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 45 46 61 46
               White na na na 10,676 10,730 10,510 10,640
               More than one race na na na 70 137 96 147
            Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 2,741 2,504 2,731 2,300
         Temporary visa holders 17,768 18,366 18,588 19,558 19,629 19,262 18,738
         Agricultural sciences 985 1,147 1,083 1,190 1,256 1,290 1,319
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 422 604 573 609 655 715 737
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 24 32 31 34
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 4 5 2 0
                  Asian na na na 116 108 121 125
                  Black or African American na na na 22 22 21 21
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 1 4 3
                  White na na na 387 389 426 428
                  More than one race na na na 0 2 4 9
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 56 96 106 117
            Temporary visa holders 563 543 510 581 601 575 582
         Biological sciences 19,109 19,827 20,159 21,726 21,107 20,086 19,330
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 8,174 8,615 9,148 10,283 9,877 9,194 8,984
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 473 461 413 467
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 27 33 23 41
                  Asian na na na 1,987 1,863 1,664 1,689
                  Black or African American na na na 312 303 315 332
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 30 32 36 23
                  White na na na 5,901 5,742 5,304 5,213
                  More than one race na na na 44 60 49 58
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 1,509 1,383 1,390 1,161
            Temporary visa holders 10,935 11,212 11,011 11,443 11,230 10,892 10,346
         Communication 30 32 38 62 67 58 76
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 17 20 28 38 38 32 45
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 2 2 1 2
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 1 4 1 2
                  Black or African American na na na 2 2 1 2
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 0 0
                  White na na na 26 19 16 25
                  More than one race na na na 0 1 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 7 10 13 14
            Temporary visa holders 13 12 10 24 29 26 31
         Computer sciences 456 493 594 763 759 760 765
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 166 195 272 308 312 297 302
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 8 12 14 17
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 2 1 0 1
                  Asian na na na 58 60 60 68
                  Black or African American na na na 5 10 11 17
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 2 0 0
                  White na na na 185 179 151 153
                  More than one race na na na 0 3 1 2
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 50 45 60 44
            Temporary visa holders 290 298 322 455 447 463 463
         Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 1,250 1,339 1,424 1,740 1,774 1,956 2,032
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 612 643 714 953 987 1,069 1,144
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 28 37 41 42
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 7 3 3 2
                  Asian na na na 76 120 119 123
                  Black or African American na na na 9 11 15 17
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 1 1 3
                  White na na na 648 678 737 800
                  More than one race na na na 4 22 12 24
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 181 115 141 133
            Temporary visa holders 638 696 710 787 787 887 888
         Family and consumer sciences and human sciences 8 19 22 30 52 58 90
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 4 15 15 23 41 43 69
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 0 1 2 2
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 1 0
                  Asian na na na 3 2 3 14
                  Black or African American na na na 2 4 3 8
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 0 0
                  White na na na 18 30 34 40
                  More than one race na na na 0 0 0 1
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 0 4 0 4
            Temporary visa holders 4 4 7 7 11 15 21
         Mathematical sciences 624 723 737 791 830 902 932
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 303 356 383 415 419 456 488
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 11 17 18 18
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 1 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 32 38 36 52
                  Black or African American na na na 4 10 6 10
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 1 1
                  White na na na 288 273 288 305
                  More than one race na na na 3 4 5 8
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 76 77 102 94
            Temporary visa holders 321 367 354 376 411 446 444
         Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies 244 348 459 785 704 742 891
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 156 193 237 459 390 427 504
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 17 15 19 20
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 4 1 1
                  Asian na na na 45 43 52 75
                  Black or African American na na na 7 20 17 17
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 3 2
                  White na na na 287 269 291 339
                  More than one race na na na 2 0 5 5
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 101 39 39 45
            Temporary visa holders 88 155 222 326 314 315 387
         Neuroscience 285 343 645 838 1,398 1,525 1,696
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 123 140 339 392 691 737 832
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 15 34 22 52
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 3 1 1 3
                  Asian na na na 64 80 96 138
                  Black or African American na na na 14 13 14 13
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 1 3 1 1
                  White na na na 224 400 438 475
                  More than one race na na na 3 3 2 8
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 68 157 163 142
            Temporary visa holders 162 203 306 446 707 788 864
          Physical sciences 6,719 6,885 7,447 7,583 7,490 7,430 7,197
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 2,470 2,512 2,834 3,011 2,964 3,109 3,016
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 99 106 116 111
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 11 7 12 14
                  Asian na na na 486 483 483 489
                  Black or African American na na na 59 84 78 86
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 12 6 8 8
                  White na na na 1,850 1,860 1,883 1,894
                  More than one race na na na 7 36 13 23
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 487 382 516 391
            Temporary visa holders 4,249 4,373 4,613 4,572 4,526 4,321 4,181
         Psychology 1,088 1,077 1,219 1,132 1,124 1,132 1,023
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 733 753 892 813 795 843 785
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 39 36 42 30
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 1 1 0 1
                  Asian na na na 53 52 47 58
                  Black or African American na na na 25 20 28 34
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 2 1 1 1
                  White na na na 554 575 629 592
                  More than one race na na na 4 1 2 5
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 135 109 94 64
            Temporary visa holders 355 324 327 319 329 289 238
         Social sciences 483 508 561 711 774 799 938
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 333 329 365 489 537 554 645
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 28 46 31 50
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 2 7 5 5
                  Asian na na na 45 42 54 65
                  Black or African American na na na 32 34 35 50
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 6 4
                  White na na na 308 316 313 376
                  More than one race na na na 3 5 3 4
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 71 87 107 91
            Temporary visa holders 150 179 196 222 237 245 293
      Engineering 4,942 5,462 6,416 6,969 6,786 7,103 7,106
         U.S. citizens and permanent residents 1,594 1,899 2,375 2,637 2,634 2,738 2,706
            Hispanic or Latino na na na 69 102 112 116
            Not Hispanic or Latino              
               American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 4 4 3 3
               Asian na na na 626 607 594 628
               Black or African American na na na 71 77 71 60
               Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 8 7 2 4
               White na na na 1,304 1,235 1,325 1,313
               More than one race na na na 11 24 16 18
            Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 544 578 615 564
         Temporary visa holders 3,348 3,563 4,041 4,332 4,152 4,365 4,400
         Aerospace engineering 178 154 168 212 202 170 202
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 59 56 69 69 62 64 78
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 2 1 1 1
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 17 13 20 21
                  Black or African American na na na 2 1 1 0
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 0 0
                  White na na na 34 25 32 40
                  More than one race na na na 0 0 2 1
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 14 22 8 15
            Temporary visa holders 119 98 99 143 140 106 124
         Agricultural engineering 139 135 110 119 129 133 152
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 26 38 32 37 45 46 51
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 4 1 2 0
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 1 0
                  Asian na na na 17 17 14 21
                  Black or African American na na na 3 4 3 3
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 2 1 1
                  White na na na 13 19 23 22
                  More than one race na na na 0 0 1 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 0 2 1 4
            Temporary visa holders 113 97 78 82 84 87 101
         Architecture 5 11 22 10 16 6 17
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 1 4 13 5 7 3 8
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 0 0 0 1
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 0 3 0 0
                  Black or African American na na na 1 0 0 0
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 0 0
                  White na na na 2 4 2 6
                  More than one race na na na 0 0 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 2 0 1 1
            Temporary visa holders 4 7 9 5 9 3 9
         Biomedical engineering 640 710 960 1,023 1,069 1,161 1,103
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 289 315 451 471 523 531 519
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 15 20 20 23
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 1 2 0 1
                  Asian na na na 123 149 134 130
                  Black or African American na na na 27 23 21 17
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 1 1 0 1
                  White na na na 223 251 279 260
                  More than one race na na na 1 0 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 80 77 77 87
            Temporary visa holders 351 395 509 552 546 630 584
         Chemical engineering 790 880 1,084 1,077 1,137 1,098 1,230
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 272 299 408 380 404 388 440
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 13 18 23 25
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 95 96 88 117
                  Black or African American na na na 7 10 8 8
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 2 3 0 0
                  White na na na 212 230 216 232
                  More than one race na na na 0 6 4 5
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 51 41 49 53
            Temporary visa holders 518 581 676 697 733 710 790
         Civil engineering 417 465 535 571 551 590 587
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 159 171 212 242 223 236 263
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 8 8 17 9
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 2 1 0 0
                  Asian na na na 45 28 42 58
                  Black or African American na na na 3 3 3 3
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 0 0
                  White na na na 115 105 105 140
                  More than one race na na na 2 4 1 3
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 67 74 68 50
            Temporary visa holders 258 294 323 329 328 354 324
         Electrical engineering 884 987 1,025 1,095 1,035 1,152 1,180
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 247 375 323 399 369 450 433
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 4 9 14 14
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 1 0 0 1
                  Asian na na na 92 79 86 80
                  Black or African American na na na 8 11 13 9
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 2 0 0 0
                  White na na na 164 154 173 174
                  More than one race na na na 1 3 0 3
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 127 113 164 152
            Temporary visa holders 637 612 702 696 666 702 747
         Engineering science 183 214 226 236 281 292 240
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 55 101 112 94 109 113 73
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 3 7 4 1
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 20 14 13 16
                  Black or African American na na na 2 0 1 1
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 0 0
                  White na na na 66 65 67 51
                  More than one race na na na 1 1 2 1
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 2 22 26 3
            Temporary visa holders 128 113 114 142 172 179 167
         Industrial engineering 71 115 109 151 121 127 133
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 19 36 50 72 56 64 62
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 1 3 2 3
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 11 6 8 16
                  Black or African American na na na 4 3 2 1
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 1 0 0 0
                  White na na na 46 34 36 29
                  More than one race na na na 1 0 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 8 10 16 13
            Temporary visa holders 52 79 59 79 65 63 71
         Mechanical engineering 722 784 948 1,021 889 985 1,034
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 198 224 281 350 324 338 373
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 8 11 10 21
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 96 75 67 93
                  Black or African American na na na 5 5 6 7
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 0 0
                  White na na na 163 135 162 173
                  More than one race na na na 0 4 2 2
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 78 94 91 77
            Temporary visa holders 524 560 667 671 565 647 661
         Metallurgical and materials engineering 564 605 758 841 860 854 809
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 141 147 243 301 306 290 278
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 6 17 13 12
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 1 2 1
                  Asian na na na 73 73 75 63
                  Black or African American na na na 3 10 6 8
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 2 0 0 1
                  White na na na 148 136 126 117
                  More than one race na na na 4 5 2 1
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 65 64 66 75
            Temporary visa holders 423 458 515 540 554 564 531
         Mining engineering 5 5 4 4 4 5 7
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 2 1 1 1 2 2 4
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 0 0 2 2
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Black or African American na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 0 0
                  White na na na 1 2 0 2
                  More than one race na na na 0 0 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 0 0 0 0
            Temporary visa holders 3 4 3 3 2 3 3
         Nuclear engineering 73 85 90 107 111 120 105
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 25 31 35 55 48 49 32
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 0 1 1 1
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 6 8 7 1
                  Black or African American na na na 1 3 2 0
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 1 0 0
                  White na na na 30 21 23 20
                  More than one race na na na 1 0 1 1
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 17 14 15 9
            Temporary visa holders 48 54 55 52 63 71 73
         Petroleum engineering 22 28 36 44 35 53 49
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 7 5 12 12 10 8 6
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 1 3 1 0
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 4 3 4 2
                  Black or African American na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 0 0
                  White na na na 4 2 2 3
                  More than one race na na na 0 1 1 1
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 3 1 0 0
            Temporary visa holders 15 23 24 32 25 45 43
         Engineering nec 249 284 341 458 346 357 258
            U.S. citizens and permanent residents 94 96 133 149 146 156 86
               Hispanic or Latino na na na 4 3 2 3
               Not Hispanic or Latino              
                  American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Asian na na na 27 43 36 10
                  Black or African American na na na 5 4 5 3
                  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 0 0 1 1
                  White na na na 83 52 79 44
                  More than one race na na na 0 0 0 0
               Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 30 44 33 25
            Temporary visa holders 155 188 208 309 200 201 172
   Health 14,617 15,961 17,001 19,119 18,518 19,010 18,547
      U.S. citizens and permanent residents 6,996 8,641 8,930 9,725 9,372 9,650 9,289
         Hispanic or Latino na na na 463 458 489 529
         Not Hispanic or Latino              
            American Indian or Alaska Native na na na 35 24 34 50
            Asian na na na 2,352 2,136 2,037 1,914
            Black or African American na na na 416 432 489 465
            Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander na na na 41 32 36 27
            White na na na 5,276 5,321 5,445 5,395
            More than one race na na na 62 60 74 98
         Unknown ethnicity and race na na na 1,080 909 1,046 811
      Temporary visa holders 7,621 7,320 8,071 9,394 9,146 9,360 9,258

nec = not elsewhere classified.
a In 2007, eligible fields were reclassified, newly eligible fields were added, and the survey was redesigned to improve coverage and coding of eligible units. 2007 data presented in this table are the data collected in 2007, which were labeled as "2007new" in the past publications. See appendix A in http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf10307/ for more detail on the changes made in 2007.
b In 2010, the postdoc section of the survey was expanded, and significant effort was made to ensure that appropriate personnel were providing postdoc data (see appendix A for more information). Thus, it is unclear how much of the increases in 2010 and later years over 2009 and prior years are from growth in postdoctoral appointments and how much are from improved data collection. More information on the changes to the postdoc data collection is available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf13334/.
c Postdoc data from 2010 and 2011 were reimputed following the 2012 data collection; these data supersede those contained in previous reports.
NOTE: "Field" refers to the field of the unit that reports postdocs to the Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, NSF-NIH Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering.
Data from survey cycle Fall 2013, as of 8 August 2014.