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Table 37. Postdoctoral appointees in science, engineering, and health in all institutions, by field and primary source of support: 2007–13
Field and primary source of support 2007a 2008 2009 2010b, c 2011c 2012 2013
All surveyed fields 50,840 54,164 57,805 63,439 62,639 62,851 61,942
   Federal 32,602 32,362 35,533 36,439 35,635 35,794 33,382
      DOD na na na 2,524 2,353 2,414 2,393
      DOE na na na 2,114 1,872 2,001 1,845
      HHS na na na 22,603 22,557 22,576 20,697
         NIH na na na 21,788 21,613 21,535 19,784
         Other HHS na na na 815 944 1,041 913
      NASA na na na 646 623 612 598
      NSF na na na 4,286 4,316 4,324 4,153
      USDA na na na 655 696 677 693
      Other na na na 3,611 3,218 3,190 3,003
   Nonfederal 18,238 21,802 22,272 19,526 20,606 22,088 22,712
      Institutional na na na 9,618 10,393 11,700 12,254
      Domestic na na na 8,271 8,635 8,592 8,713
      Foreign na na na 1,637 1,578 1,796 1,745
   Self-support na na na 462 459 447 588
   Unknown na na na 7,012 5,939 4,522 5,260
   Science and engineering 36,223 38,203 40,804 44,320 44,121 43,841 43,395
      Federal 23,564 23,411 25,996 26,651 25,690 25,678 24,143
         DOD na na na 2,172 2,029 2,110 2,070
         DOE na na na 2,093 1,851 1,979 1,820
         HHS na na na 14,038 13,699 13,534 12,524
            NIH na na na 13,528 13,068 12,833 11,923
            Other HHS na na na 510 631 701 601
         NASA na na na 623 604 588 573
         NSF na na na 4,226 4,265 4,251 4,082
         USDA na na na 610 651 641 654
         Other na na na 2,889 2,591 2,575 2,420
      Nonfederal 12,659 14,792 14,808 13,147 14,023 14,430 15,079
         Institutional na na na 6,555 7,065 7,366 7,896
         Domestic na na na 5,354 5,799 5,825 5,948
         Foreign na na na 1,238 1,159 1,239 1,235
      Self-support na na na 298 251 275 334
      Unknown na na na 4,224 4,157 3,458 3,839
      Science 31,281 32,741 34,388 37,351 37,335 36,738 36,289
         Federal 20,675 20,441 22,270 22,614 21,959 21,824 20,517
            DOD na na na 1,283 1,168 1,234 1,215
            DOE na na na 1,333 1,252 1,272 1,229
            HHS na na na 13,127 12,790 12,609 11,672
               NIH na na na 12,692 12,241 11,990 11,157
               Other HHS na na na 435 549 619 515
            NASA na na na 521 511 506 493
            NSF na na na 3,433 3,527 3,523 3,336
            USDA na na na 571 599 588 591
            Other na na na 2,346 2,112 2,092 1,981
         Nonfederal 10,606 12,300 12,118 10,902 11,690 11,936 12,383
            Institutional na na na 5,464 6,008 6,317 6,616
            Domestic na na na 4,502 4,797 4,704 4,839
            Foreign na na na 936 885 915 928
         Self-support na na na 232 178 211 263
         Unknown na na na 3,603 3,508 2,767 3,126
         Agricultural sciences 985 1,147 1,083 1,190 1,256 1,290 1,319
            Federal 537 507 600 647 619 623 607
               DOD na na na 15 32 15 19
               DOE na na na 35 26 35 32
               HHS na na na 58 40 53 48
                  NIH na na na 49 33 34 40
                  Other HHS na na na 9 7 19 8
               NASA na na na 1 8 8 11
               NSF na na na 112 104 127 110
               USDA na na na 282 288 248 267
               Other na na na 144 121 137 120
            Nonfederal 448 640 483 517 534 578 620
               Institutional na na na 304 279 298 354
               Domestic na na na 189 217 263 255
               Foreign na na na 24 38 17 11
            Self-support na na na 17 17 22 12
            Unknown na na na 9 86 67 80
         Biological sciences 19,109 19,827 20,159 21,726 21,107 20,086 19,330
            Federal 12,835 12,502 13,124 13,554 12,842 12,475 11,404
               DOD na na na 433 339 351 360
               DOE na na na 210 186 148 138
               HHS na na na 10,388 9,949 9,689 8,817
                  NIH na na na 10,124 9,625 9,333 8,523
                  Other HHS na na na 264 324 356 294
               NASA na na na 46 36 26 22
               NSF na na na 975 1,003 921 822
               USDA na na na 245 260 272 273
               Other na na na 1,257 1,069 1,068 972
            Nonfederal 6,274 7,325 7,035 5,849 6,158 6,212 6,304
               Institutional na na na 2,672 2,872 3,092 3,088
               Domestic na na na 2,716 2,892 2,697 2,821
               Foreign na na na 461 394 423 395
            Self-support na na na 94 61 69 87
            Unknown na na na 2,229 2,046 1,330 1,535
         Communication 30 32 38 62 67 58 76
            Federal 3 3 10 20 17 20 26
               DOD na na na 6 5 7 3
               DOE na na na 0 0 0 0
               HHS na na na 12 10 5 10
                  NIH na na na 11 10 5 9
                  Other HHS na na na 1 0 0 1
               NASA na na na 0 0 1 0
               NSF na na na 2 2 6 12
               USDA na na na 0 0 0 0
               Other na na na 0 0 1 1
            Nonfederal 27 29 28 33 42 32 43
               Institutional na na na 17 17 13 27
               Domestic na na na 11 16 14 9
               Foreign na na na 5 9 5 7
            Self-support na na na 0 0 0 0
            Unknown na na na 9 8 6 7
         Computer sciences 456 493 594 763 759 760 765
            Federal 291 302 392 501 477 503 490
               DOD na na na 119 138 150 148
               DOE na na na 31 26 22 19
               HHS na na na 71 54 56 58
                  NIH na na na 65 51 52 52
                  Other HHS na na na 6 3 4 6
               NASA na na na 10 2 0 3
               NSF na na na 210 203 226 208
               USDA na na na 2 2 1 0
               Other na na na 58 52 48 54
            Nonfederal 165 191 202 217 226 220 232
               Institutional na na na 102 100 96 109
               Domestic na na na 91 101 96 86
               Foreign na na na 24 25 28 37
            Self-support na na na 7 2 2 8
            Unknown na na na 38 54 35 35
         Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 1,250 1,339 1,424 1,740 1,774 1,956 2,032
            Federal 768 808 898 963 948 1,108 1,100
               DOD na na na 86 63 58 93
               DOE na na na 78 75 98 94
               HHS na na na 83 85 88 96
                  NIH na na na 78 76 78 86
                  Other HHS na na na 5 9 10 10
               NASA na na na 147 145 164 177
               NSF na na na 349 393 467 447
               USDA na na na 15 13 25 13
               Other na na na 205 174 208 180
            Nonfederal 482 531 526 668 691 768 748
               Institutional na na na 354 399 438 372
               Domestic na na na 214 197 204 238
               Foreign na na na 100 95 126 138
            Self-support na na na 13 14 21 19
            Unknown na na na 96 121 59 165
         Family and consumer sciences and human sciences 8 19 22 30 52 58 90
            Federal 2 7 8 15 24 29 31
               DOD na na na 1 0 0 2
               DOE na na na 0 0 0 0
               HHS na na na 9 13 19 15
                  NIH na na na 5 11 16 10
                  Other HHS na na na 4 2 3 5
               NASA na na na 0 0 0 0
               NSF na na na 1 1 0 0
               USDA na na na 0 2 3 4
               Other na na na 4 8 7 10
            Nonfederal 6 12 14 10 28 25 38
               Institutional na na na 6 15 7 14
               Domestic na na na 4 13 18 23
               Foreign na na na 0 0 0 1
            Self-support na na na 0 0 4 9
            Unknown na na na 5 0 0 12
         Mathematical sciences 624 723 737 791 830 902 932
            Federal 306 338 364 335 388 395 394
               DOD na na na 52 47 79 73
               DOE na na na 17 13 15 10
               HHS na na na 59 63 58 50
                  NIH na na na 54 52 49 41
                  Other HHS na na na 5 11 9 9
               NASA na na na 2 4 4 5
               NSF na na na 186 236 224 235
               USDA na na na 1 0 0 0
               Other na na na 18 25 15 21
            Nonfederal 318 385 373 357 358 413 424
               Institutional na na na 290 280 339 363
               Domestic na na na 52 59 60 40
               Foreign na na na 15 19 14 21
            Self-support na na na 7 3 3 11
            Unknown na na na 92 81 91 103
         Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies 244 348 459 785 704 742 891
            Federal 116 188 265 459 402 425 491
               DOD na na na 43 54 41 40
               DOE na na na 47 41 48 54
               HHS na na na 231 209 236 275
                  NIH na na na 228 204 230 272
                  Other HHS na na na 3 5 6 3
               NASA na na na 3 5 6 4
               NSF na na na 73 62 65 88
               USDA na na na 2 3 3 5
               Other na na na 60 28 26 25
            Nonfederal 128 160 194 218 258 273 309
               Institutional na na na 113 169 172 162
               Domestic na na na 94 82 86 134
               Foreign na na na 11 7 15 13
            Self-support na na na 17 16 21 20
            Unknown na na na 91 28 23 71
         Neuroscience 285 343 645 838 1,398 1,525 1,696
            Federal 192 220 447 492 817 856 977
               DOD na na na 58 23 34 36
               DOE na na na 0 3 0 0
               HHS na na na 391 701 733 823
                  NIH na na na 378 653 682 759
                  Other HHS na na na 13 48 51 64
               NASA na na na 0 0 1 1
               NSF na na na 12 16 26 27
               USDA na na na 0 1 1 1
               Other na na na 31 73 61 89
            Nonfederal 93 123 198 208 428 511 546
               Institutional na na na 66 172 165 194
               Domestic na na na 119 220 313 302
               Foreign na na na 23 36 33 50
            Self-support na na na 1 2 0 4
            Unknown na na na 137 151 158 169
         Physical sciences 6,719 6,885 7,447 7,583 7,490 7,430 7,197
            Federal 4,719 4,671 5,177 4,710 4,493 4,424 4,129
               DOD na na na 429 405 435 384
               DOE na na na 910 878 904 874
               HHS na na na 1,242 1,096 1,075 979
                  NIH na na na 1,164 1,004 950 893
                  Other HHS na na na 78 92 125 86
               NASA na na na 300 308 287 254
               NSF na na na 1,392 1,361 1,329 1,254
               USDA na na na 10 10 12 6
               Other na na na 427 435 382 378
            Nonfederal 2,000 2,214 2,270 2,129 2,234 2,186 2,298
               Institutional na na na 1,122 1,246 1,237 1,371
               Domestic na na na 798 789 757 721
               Foreign na na na 209 199 192 206
            Self-support na na na 38 37 31 43
            Unknown na na na 706 726 789 727
         Psychology 1,088 1,077 1,219 1,132 1,124 1,132 1,023
            Federal 739 737 830 704 721 748 630
               DOD na na na 34 48 47 33
               DOE na na na 0 1 1 1
               HHS na na na 512 502 535 438
                  NIH na na na 476 462 503 410
                  Other HHS na na na 36 40 32 28
               NASA na na na 2 0 0 2
               NSF na na na 63 84 67 64
               USDA na na na 0 0 0 2
               Other na na na 93 86 98 90
            Nonfederal 349 340 389 314 333 308 302
               Institutional na na na 154 182 190 186
               Domestic na na na 108 106 84 92
               Foreign na na na 52 45 34 24
            Self-support na na na 20 14 12 17
            Unknown na na na 94 56 64 74
         Social sciences 483 508 561 711 774 799 938
            Federal 167 158 155 214 211 218 238
               DOD na na na 7 14 17 24
               DOE na na na 5 3 1 7
               HHS na na na 71 68 62 63
                  NIH na na na 60 60 58 62
                  Other HHS na na na 11 8 4 1
               NASA na na na 10 3 9 14
               NSF na na na 58 62 65 69
               USDA na na na 14 20 23 20
               Other na na na 49 41 41 41
            Nonfederal 316 350 406 382 400 410 519
               Institutional na na na 264 277 270 376
               Domestic na na na 106 105 112 118
               Foreign na na na 12 18 28 25
            Self-support na na na 18 12 26 33
            Unknown na na na 97 151 145 148
      Engineering 4,942 5,462 6,416 6,969 6,786 7,103 7,106
         Federal 2,889 2,970 3,726 4,037 3,731 3,854 3,626
            DOD na na na 889 861 876 855
            DOE na na na 760 599 707 591
            HHS na na na 911 909 925 852
               NIH na na na 836 827 843 766
               Other HHS na na na 75 82 82 86
            NASA na na na 102 93 82 80
            NSF na na na 793 738 728 746
            USDA na na na 39 52 53 63
            Other na na na 543 479 483 439
            Nonfederal 2,053 2,492 2,690 2,245 2,333 2,494 2,696
               Institutional na na na 1,091 1,057 1,049 1,280
               Domestic na na na 852 1,002 1,121 1,109
               Foreign na na na 302 274 324 307
            Self-support na na na 66 73 64 71
            Unknown na na na 621 649 691 713
         Aerospace engineering 178 154 168 212 202 170 202
            Federal 98 109 107 137 112 92 108
               DOD na na na 49 48 50 57
               DOE na na na 15 12 7 11
               HHS na na na 6 18 2 3
                  NIH na na na 6 3 2 3
                  Other HHS na na na 0 15 0 0
               NASA na na na 11 10 8 8
               NSF na na na 18 6 11 14
               USDA na na na 1 1 1 1
               Other na na na 37 17 13 14
            Nonfederal 80 45 61 62 72 69 76
               Institutional na na na 30 32 35 38
               Domestic na na na 23 27 27 30
               Foreign na na na 9 13 7 8
            Self-support na na na 7 4 3 3
            Unknown na na na 6 14 6 15
         Agricultural engineering 139 135 110 119 129 133 152
            Federal 72 76 48 66 79 75 76
               DOD na na na 5 10 7 3
               DOE na na na 5 12 5 11
               HHS na na na 9 5 4 2
                  NIH na na na 8 5 1 0
                  Other HHS na na na 1 0 3 2
               NASA na na na 0 3 3 6
               NSF na na na 9 9 17 7
               USDA na na na 24 27 27 32
               Other na na na 14 13 12 15
            Nonfederal 67 59 62 48 49 54 60
               Institutional na na na 33 29 31 31
               Domestic na na na 15 16 15 24
               Foreign na na na 0 4 8 5
            Self-support na na na 4 1 4 4
            Unknown na na na 1 0 0 12
         Architecture 5 11 22 10 16 6 17
            Federal 0 0 8 2 8 3 7
               DOD na na na 0 1 0 1
               DOE na na na 0 0 1 1
               HHS na na na 0 0 0 0
                  NIH na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Other HHS na na na 0 0 0 0
               NASA na na na 0 0 0 0
               NSF na na na 2 3 2 4
               USDA na na na 0 4 0 0
               Other na na na 0 0 0 1
            Nonfederal 5 11 14 7 6 3 9
               Institutional na na na 5 5 1 6
               Domestic na na na 0 1 1 2
               Foreign na na na 2 0 1 1
            Self-support na na na 0 0 0 0
            Unknown na na na 1 2 0 1
         Biomedical engineering 640 710 960 1,023 1,069 1,161 1,103
            Federal 438 470 679 658 658 701 665
               DOD na na na 55 70 75 68
               DOE na na na 22 21 17 21
               HHS na na na 478 460 495 456
                  NIH na na na 465 455 471 441
                  Other HHS na na na 13 5 24 15
               NASA na na na 2 2 1 4
               NSF na na na 58 64 68 80
               USDA na na na 0 2 0 0
               Other na na na 43 39 45 36
            Nonfederal 202 240 281 260 326 353 353
               Institutional na na na 125 171 158 185
               Domestic na na na 102 125 157 130
               Foreign na na na 33 30 38 38
            Self-support na na na 7 7 1 5
            Unknown na na na 98 78 106 80
         Chemical engineering 790 880 1,084 1,077 1,137 1,098 1,230
            Federal 447 403 585 526 546 520 544
               DOD na na na 80 85 102 107
               DOE na na na 142 139 120 129
               HHS na na na 111 117 117 120
                  NIH na na na 99 114 115 109
                  Other HHS na na na 12 3 2 11
               NASA na na na 8 8 10 9
               NSF na na na 120 150 122 111
               USDA na na na 4 6 14 15
               Other na na na 61 41 35 53
            Nonfederal 343 477 499 403 454 454 543
               Institutional na na na 174 178 169 227
               Domestic na na na 165 215 221 254
               Foreign na na na 64 61 64 62
            Self-support na na na 0 0 5 4
            Unknown na na na 148 137 119 139
         Civil engineering 417 465 535 571 551 590 587
            Federal 219 207 260 239 265 237 243
               DOD na na na 33 40 38 32
               DOE na na na 38 40 43 37
               HHS na na na 14 25 15 17
                  NIH na na na 13 17 13 14
                  Other HHS na na na 1 8 2 3
               NASA na na na 15 11 12 12
               NSF na na na 53 55 49 79
               USDA na na na 4 5 4 4
               Other na na na 82 89 76 62
            Nonfederal 198 258 275 276 217 266 256
               Institutional na na na 161 133 130 155
               Domestic na na na 78 61 104 81
               Foreign na na na 37 23 32 20
            Self-support na na na 6 4 4 7
            Unknown na na na 50 65 83 81
         Electrical engineering 884 987 1,025 1,095 1,035 1,152 1,180
            Federal 520 521 586 638 569 632 621
               DOD na na na 232 225 229 240
               DOE na na na 77 36 72 62
               HHS na na na 100 86 89 79
                  NIH na na na 77 66 66 64
                  Other HHS na na na 23 20 23 15
               NASA na na na 8 9 12 16
               NSF na na na 162 150 157 149
               USDA na na na 0 1 1 5
               Other na na na 59 62 72 70
            Nonfederal 364 466 439 316 301 337 364
               Institutional na na na 157 120 145 171
               Domestic na na na 125 152 151 146
               Foreign na na na 34 29 41 47
            Self-support na na na 6 16 9 18
            Unknown na na na 135 149 174 177
         Engineering science 183 214 226 236 281 292 240
            Federal 119 125 151 164 176 174 157
               DOD na na na 42 50 44 44
               DOE na na na 35 24 39 28
               HHS na na na 23 40 34 19
                  NIH na na na 23 38 26 11
                  Other HHS na na na 0 2 8 8
               NASA na na na 10 16 10 9
               NSF na na na 37 27 32 36
               USDA na na na 0 1 0 0
               Other na na na 17 18 15 21
            Nonfederal 64 89 75 70 102 115 82
               Institutional na na na 34 36 43 38
               Domestic na na na 20 44 41 27
               Foreign na na na 16 22 31 17
            Self-support na na na 2 2 2 1
            Unknown na na na 0 1 1 0
         Industrial engineering 71 115 109 151 121 127 133
            Federal 23 48 56 78 45 51 39
               DOD na na na 15 12 11 15
               DOE na na na 10 4 2 4
               HHS na na na 21 5 5 6
                  NIH na na na 15 3 5 5
                  Other HHS na na na 6 2 0 1
               NASA na na na 2 1 0 1
               NSF na na na 17 13 14 8
               USDA na na na 0 0 0 0
               Other na na na 13 10 19 5
            Nonfederal 48 67 53 46 50 44 60
               Institutional na na na 27 31 25 41
               Domestic na na na 12 15 13 11
               Foreign na na na 7 4 6 8
            Self-support na na na 18 12 15 7
            Unknown na na na 9 14 17 27
         Mechanical engineering 722 784 948 1,021 889 985 1,034
            Federal 437 443 535 635 482 577 544
               DOD na na na 174 132 163 135
               DOE na na na 101 79 101 92
               HHS na na na 76 83 92 103
                  NIH na na na 65 62 74 78
                  Other HHS na na na 11 21 18 25
               NASA na na na 30 20 19 12
               NSF na na na 139 113 124 128
               USDA na na na 3 0 0 2
               Other na na na 112 55 78 72
            Nonfederal 285 341 413 290 284 289 372
               Institutional na na na 154 137 132 190
               Domestic na na na 97 102 111 143
               Foreign na na na 39 45 46 39
            Self-support na na na 2 14 13 15
            Unknown na na na 94 109 106 103
         Metallurgical and materials engineering 564 605 758 841 860 854 809
            Federal 294 311 429 486 489 453 413
               DOD na na na 138 142 114 119
               DOE na na na 115 109 112 97
               HHS na na na 42 35 36 29
                  NIH na na na 40 31 34 24
                  Other HHS na na na 2 4 2 5
               NASA na na na 9 7 5 2
               NSF na na na 117 108 101 103
               USDA na na na 1 5 5 3
               Other na na na 64 83 80 60
            Nonfederal 270 294 329 286 309 338 339
               Institutional na na na 111 109 114 132
               Domestic na na na 140 168 189 169
               Foreign na na na 35 32 35 38
            Self-support na na na 7 5 6 5
            Unknown na na na 62 57 57 52
         Mining engineering 5 5 4 4 4 5 7
            Federal 3 2 2 1 0 2 2
               DOD na na na 0 0 0 0
               DOE na na na 1 0 1 1
               HHS na na na 0 0 0 0
                  NIH na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Other HHS na na na 0 0 0 0
               NASA na na na 0 0 0 0
               NSF na na na 0 0 0 0
               USDA na na na 0 0 0 0
               Other na na na 0 0 1 1
            Nonfederal 2 3 2 2 4 1 3
               Institutional na na na 2 3 1 2
               Domestic na na na 0 1 0 1
               Foreign na na na 0 0 0 0
            Self-support na na na 0 0 0 0
            Unknown na na na 1 0 2 2
         Nuclear engineering 73 85 90 107 111 120 105
            Federal 53 60 63 74 65 77 49
               DOD na na na 4 2 4 2
               DOE na na na 50 34 48 30
               HHS na na na 6 12 11 0
                  NIH na na na 6 12 11 0
                  Other HHS na na na 0 0 0 0
               NASA na na na 1 2 0 0
               NSF na na na 4 7 6 4
               USDA na na na 0 0 0 0
               Other na na na 9 8 8 13
            Nonfederal 20 25 27 20 37 32 44
               Institutional na na na 6 12 14 13
               Domestic na na na 13 24 17 24
               Foreign na na na 1 1 1 7
            Self-support na na na 0 0 0 0
            Unknown na na na 13 9 11 12
         Petroleum engineering 22 28 36 44 35 53 49
            Federal 11 5 6 7 7 6 9
               DOD na na na 0 0 0 0
               DOE na na na 7 7 5 8
               HHS na na na 0 0 0 0
                  NIH na na na 0 0 0 0
                  Other HHS na na na 0 0 0 0
               NASA na na na 0 0 0 0
               NSF na na na 0 0 0 0
               USDA na na na 0 0 0 0
               Other na na na 0 0 1 1
            Nonfederal 11 23 30 37 28 45 40
               Institutional na na na 13 8 6 2
               Domestic na na na 19 18 33 29
               Foreign na na na 5 2 6 9
            Self-support na na na 0 0 0 0
            Unknown na na na 0 0 2 0
         Engineering nec 249 284 341 458 346 357 258
            Federal 155 190 211 326 230 254 149
               DOD na na na 62 44 39 32
               DOE na na na 142 82 134 59
               HHS na na na 25 23 25 18
                  NIH na na na 19 21 25 17
                  Other HHS na na na 6 2 0 1
               NASA na na na 6 4 2 1
               NSF na na na 57 33 25 23
               USDA na na na 2 0 1 1
               Other na na na 32 44 28 15
            Nonfederal 94 94 130 122 94 94 95
               Institutional na na na 59 53 45 49
               Domestic na na na 43 33 41 38
               Foreign na na na 20 8 8 8
            Self-support na na na 7 8 2 2
            Unknown na na na 3 14 7 12
   Health 14,617 15,961 17,001 19,119 18,518 19,010 18,547
      Federal 9,038 8,951 9,537 9,788 9,945 10,116 9,239
         DOD na na na 352 324 304 323
         DOE na na na 21 21 22 25
         HHS na na na 8,565 8,858 9,042 8,173
            NIH na na na 8,260 8,545 8,702 7,861
            Other HHS na na na 305 313 340 312
         NASA na na na 23 19 24 25
         NSF na na na 60 51 73 71
         USDA na na na 45 45 36 39
         Other na na na 722 627 615 583
      Nonfederal 5,579 7,010 7,464 6,379 6,583 7,658 7,633
         Institutional na na na 3,063 3,328 4,334 4,358
         Domestic na na na 2,917 2,836 2,767 2,765
         Foreign na na na 399 419 557 510
      Self-support na na na 164 208 172 254
         Unknown na na na 2,788 1,782 1,064 1,421

na = not applicable; data were not collected at this level of detail.
DOD = Department of Defense; DOE = Department of Energy; HHS = Department of Health and Human Services; NASA = National Aeronautics and Space Administration; nec = not elsewhere classified; NIH = National Institutes of Health; NSF = National Science Foundation; USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture.
a In 2007, eligible fields were reclassified, newly eligible fields were added, and the survey was redesigned to improve coverage and coding of eligible units. 2007 data presented in this table are the data collected in 2007, which were labeled as "2007new" in the past publications. See appendix A in http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf10307/ for more detail on the changes made in 2007.
b In 2010, the postdoc section of the survey was expanded, and significant effort was made to ensure that appropriate personnel were providing postdoc data (see appendix A for more information). Thus, it is unclear how much of the increases in 2010 and later years over 2009 and prior years are from growth in postdoctoral appointments and how much are from improved data collection. More information on the changes to the postdoc data collection is available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf13334/.
c Postdoc data from 2010 and 2011 were reimputed following the 2012 data collection; these data supersede those contained in previous reports.
NOTE: "Field" refers to the field of the unit that reports postdocs to the Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, NSF-NIH Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering.
Data from survey cycle Fall 2013, as of 8 August 2014.