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Table 1. Higher education R&D expenditures, by source of funds and R&D field: FYs 1953–2013
(Dollars in millions)
  Source of funds
R&D field and fiscal year All R&D
expenditures
Federal
government
State and local
government
Institution
funds
Business All other
sourcesa
Total, S&E and non-S&Eb            
    2003 41,470 25,307 na na na na
    2004 44,839 28,304 na na na na
    2005 47,535 29,957 na na na na
    2006 49,645 30,909 na na na na
    2007 51,590 31,241 na na na na
    2008 54,114 32,101 na na na na
    2009 57,288 33,443 na na na na
    2010 61,257 37,477 3,853 11,941 3,198 4,788
    2011 65,282 40,771 3,829 12,612 3,180 4,891
    2012 65,744 40,151 3,695 13,635 3,272 4,991
    2013 67,041 39,470 3,658 14,974 3,501 5,438
Total, non-S&Eb            
    2003 1,393 554 na na na na
    2004 1,601 677 na na na na
    2005 1,761 770 na na na na
    2006 1,887 777 na na na na
    2007 2,095 810 na na na na
    2008 2,242 829 na na na na
    2009 2,425 866 na na na na
    2010 2,897 967 249 1,267 81 334
    2011 3,281 1,118 255 1,480 85 343
    2012 3,523 1,197 264 1,600 80 381
    2013 3,647 1,176 259 1,713 75 423
Total, S&E            
    1953 255 138 37 35 19 26
    1954 290 160 42 38 22 28
    1955 312 169 47 41 25 30
    1956 372 213 53 43 29 34
    1957 410 229 60 49 34 38
    1958 456 254 68 53 39 42
    1959 526 306 76 58 39 47
    1960 646 405 85 64 40 52
    1961 763 500 95 70 40 58
    1962 904 613 106 79 40 66
    1963 1,081 760 118 89 41 73
    1964 1,275 917 132 103 40 83
    1965 1,474 1,073 143 124 41 93
    1966 1,715 1,261 156 148 42 108
    1967 1,921 1,409 164 181 48 119
    1968 2,149 1,572 172 218 55 132
    1969 2,225 1,600 197 223 60 145
    1970 2,335 1,647 219 243 61 165
    1971 2,500 1,724 255 274 70 177
    1972 2,630 1,795 270 305 74 187
    1973 2,884 1,985 295 318 84 202
    1974 3,023 2,032 307 370 96 218
    1975 3,409 2,288 332 417 113 259
    1976 3,729 2,512 364 446 123 285
    1977 4,067 2,726 374 514 139 314
    1978c 4,625 3,059 414 623 170 359
    1979 5,366 3,598 472 735 193 368
    1980 6,063 4,098 491 835 236 403
    1981 6,847 4,571 546 1,004 291 435
    1982 7,324 4,768 616 1,111 337 491
    1983 7,882 4,989 626 1,302 389 576
    1984 8,620 5,431 690 1,411 475 613
    1985 9,687 6,064 752 1,617 560 694
    1986 10,928 6,712 915 1,869 700 732
    1987 12,153 7,343 1,023 2,168 790 828
    1988 13,463 8,193 1,106 2,356 872 935
    1989 14,979 8,993 1,224 2,698 994 1,071
    1990 16,290 9,640 1,324 3,006 1,127 1,191
    1991 17,589 10,238 1,474 3,367 1,204 1,307
    1992 18,821 11,095 1,491 3,548 1,279 1,409
    1993 19,954 11,960 1,559 3,589 1,360 1,486
    1994 21,035 12,654 1,555 3,828 1,423 1,575
    1995 22,179 13,337 1,690 4,048 1,489 1,614
    1996 23,055 13,847 1,812 4,172 1,606 1,619
    1997 24,380 14,321 1,910 4,699 1,737 1,712
    1998 25,867 15,159 1,945 5,004 1,889 1,871
    1999 27,544 16,112 2,022 5,382 2,033 1,995
    2000 30,084 17,548 2,200 5,925 2,156 2,255
    2001 32,801 19,227 2,320 6,614 2,218 2,422
    2002 36,383 21,856 2,504 7,133 2,191 2,698
    2003 40,077 24,753 2,645 7,663 2,161 2,856
    2004 43,238 27,627 2,879 7,752 2,129 2,851
    2005 45,774 29,187 2,940 8,265 2,291 3,092
    2006 47,759 30,132 2,966 9,062 2,401 3,198
    2007 49,495 30,430 3,151 9,718 2,675 3,521
    2008 51,872 31,272 3,438 10,378 2,869 3,916
    2009 54,863 32,576 3,647 11,148 3,197 4,294
    2010 58,360 36,510 3,605 10,674 3,117 4,454
    2011 62,001 39,652 3,574 11,132 3,095 4,548
    2012 62,222 38,954 3,432 12,035 3,192 4,609
    2013 63,395 38,294 3,398 13,261 3,426 5,015

na = not applicable; non-S&E data by source were not collected prior to FY 2010.
S&E = science and engineering.
a Prior to FY 2010, R&D expenditures from nonprofit organizations were collected under All other sources. Beginning in FY 2010, these data were collected separately and FY 2013 data included $4,022 million in R&D expenditures from nonprofit sources.
b From FY 2003 through FY 2009, some institution totals for all R&D expenditures may be lower-bound estimates because the National Science Foundation did not attempt to estimate for nonresponse on non-S&E R&D expenditures item prior to FY 2010.
c FY 1978 data are estimated based on data collected from doctorate-granting institutions only.
NOTES: Because of rounding, detail may not add to total. Beginning with FY 2012, institutions reporting less than $1 million in total R&D expenditures completed a shorter version of the survey questionnaire. These institutions reported $132 million in total R&D expenditures in FY 2013. Data from these institutions are included only in tables 78–84.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Higher Education Research and Development Survey.
Data from survey cycle FY 2013, as of 31 July 2014.