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Table 3. Total and federally financed higher education R&D expenditures, by character of work: FYs 1953–2013
(Dollars in millions)
  Total Federal
 
Basic research
Applied research and
development
 
Basic research
Applied research and
development
Fiscal year All R&D
expenditures
Amount Percent Amount Percent All federal R&D
expenditures
Amount Percent Amount Percent
Total S&Ea                    
    1953 255 110 43.1 145 56.9 138 na na na na
    1954 290 136 46.9 154 53.1 160 na na na na
    1955 312 159 51.0 153 49.0 169 na na na na
    1956 372 200 53.8 172 46.2 213 na na na na
    1957 410 240 58.5 170 41.5 229 na na na na
    1958 456 281 61.6 175 38.4 254 na na na na
    1959 526 343 65.2 183 34.8 306 na na na na
    1960 646 433 67.0 213 33.0 405 na na na na
    1961 763 536 70.2 227 29.8 500 na na na na
    1962 904 659 72.9 245 27.1 613 na na na na
    1963 1,081 814 75.3 267 24.7 760 na na na na
    1964 1,275 1,003 78.7 272 21.3 917 na na na na
    1965 1,474 1,138 77.2 336 22.8 1,073 na na na na
    1966 1,715 1,303 76.0 412 24.0 1,261 na na na na
    1967 1,921 1,457 75.8 464 24.2 1,409 na na na na
    1968 2,149 1,650 76.8 499 23.2 1,572 na na na na
    1969 2,225 1,711 76.9 514 23.1 1,600 na na na na
    1970 2,335 1,796 76.9 539 23.1 1,647 na na na na
    1971 2,500 1,914 76.6 586 23.4 1,724 na na na na
    1972 2,630 2,022 76.9 608 23.1 1,795 1,420 79.1 375 20.9
    1973 2,884 2,053 71.2 831 28.8 1,985 1,454 73.2 531 26.8
    1974 3,023 2,154 71.3 869 28.7 2,032 1,523 74.9 509 25.1
    1975 3,409 2,410 70.7 999 29.3 2,288 1,695 74.1 593 25.9
    1976 3,729 2,549 68.4 1,180 31.6 2,512 1,841 73.3 671 26.7
    1977 4,067 2,800 68.8 1,267 31.2 2,726 2,007 73.6 720 26.4
    1978b 4,625 na na na na 3,059 na na na na
    1979 5,366 3,619 67.4 1,747 32.6 3,598 2,577 71.6 1,022 28.4
    1980 6,063 4,036 66.6 2,026 33.4 4,098 2,861 69.8 1,237 30.2
    1981 6,847 4,594 67.1 2,253 32.9 4,571 3,260 71.3 1,311 28.7
    1982 7,324 4,879 66.6 2,445 33.4 4,768 3,402 71.3 1,367 28.7
    1983 7,882 5,303 67.3 2,579 32.7 4,989 3,547 71.1 1,442 28.9
    1984 8,620 5,733 66.5 2,887 33.5 5,431 3,830 70.5 1,601 29.5
    1985 9,687 6,556 67.7 3,131 32.3 6,064 4,343 71.6 1,722 28.4
    1986 10,928 7,492 68.6 3,435 31.4 6,712 4,868 72.5 1,844 27.5
    1987 12,153 8,393 69.1 3,760 30.9 7,343 5,375 73.2 1,968 26.8
    1988 13,463 8,894 66.1 4,569 33.9 8,193 5,678 69.3 2,515 30.7
    1989 14,979 9,793 65.4 5,186 34.6 8,993 6,195 68.9 2,797 31.1
    1990 16,290 10,645 65.3 5,645 34.7 9,640 6,649 69.0 2,991 31.0
    1991 17,589 11,607 66.0 5,982 34.0 10,238 7,128 69.6 3,110 30.4
    1992 18,821 12,516 66.5 6,305 33.5 11,095 7,718 69.6 3,377 30.4
    1993 19,954 13,303 66.7 6,651 33.3 11,960 8,398 70.2 3,562 29.8
    1994 21,035 13,989 66.5 7,046 33.5 12,654 8,878 70.2 3,775 29.8
    1995 22,179 14,812 66.8 7,367 33.2 13,337 9,399 70.5 3,938 29.5
    1996 23,055 15,481 67.1 7,574 32.9 13,847 9,868 71.3 3,978 28.7
    1997 24,380 16,602 68.1 7,778 31.9 14,321 10,316 72.0 4,006 28.0
    1998 25,867 19,058 73.7 6,810 26.3 15,159 11,862 78.2 3,298 21.8
    1999 27,544 20,450 74.2 7,094 25.8 16,112 12,746 79.1 3,365 20.9
    2000 30,084 22,547 74.9 7,537 25.1 17,548 13,936 79.4 3,611 20.6
    2001 32,801 24,392 74.4 8,409 25.6 19,227 15,038 78.2 4,188 21.8
    2002 36,383 27,363 75.2 9,019 24.8 21,856 17,262 79.0 4,593 21.0
    2003 40,077 30,105 75.1 9,973 24.9 24,753 19,627 79.3 5,126 20.7
    2004 43,238 31,957 73.9 11,281 26.1 27,627 21,353 77.3 6,274 22.7
    2005 45,774 34,353 75.0 11,421 25.0 29,187 22,885 78.4 6,302 21.6
    2006 47,759 36,082 75.5 11,677 24.5 30,132 23,697 78.6 6,434 21.4
    2007 49,495 37,726 76.2 11,769 23.8 30,430 24,001 78.9 6,429 21.1
    2008 51,872 39,322 75.8 12,550 24.2 31,272 24,430 78.1 6,842 21.9
    2009 54,863 40,913 74.6 13,950 25.4 32,576 25,025 76.8 7,551 23.2
Total S&E and non-S&Ea                    
    2010 61,257 40,285 65.8 20,973 34.2 37,477 25,434 67.9 12,043 32.1
    2011 65,282 42,382 64.9 22,900 35.1 40,771 27,167 66.6 13,603 33.4
    2012 65,744 41,836 63.6 23,908 36.4 40,151 26,166 65.2 13,985 34.8
    2013 67,041 42,822 63.9 24,219 36.1 39,470 25,853 65.5 13,617 34.5

na = not applicable; separate data for federally financed basic research, applied research, and development were not collected for these years.
S&E = science and engineering.
a Totals for FYs 1953–2009 represent R&D expenditures in S&E fields only. Beginning in FY 2010, totals and character of work data include R&D expenditures in S&E fields and non-S&E fields.
b FY 1978 data are estimated based on data collected from doctorate-granting institutions only.
NOTES: Character of work estimation procedure was revised for FY 1998 and later years; hence, these data are not directly comparable with data for FY 1997 and earlier years. Prior to FY 2010, R&D expenditures by character of work were based on percent estimates of basic research provided by universities and colleges. Beginning in FY 2010, institutions were asked for dollar amounts of federally funded and nonfederally funded R&D expenditures for basic research, applied research, and development. Because of rounding, detail may not add to total.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Higher Education Research and Development Survey.
Data from survey cycle FY 2013, as of 31 July 2014.