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Table 7. Nonfederally financed higher education R&D expenditures, by R&D field: FYs 2004–13
(Dollars in thousands)
Field 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
All R&D fieldsa 16,535,021 17,578,487 18,736,599 20,349,436 22,012,891 23,845,845 23,780,298 24,511,373 25,593,243 27,570,997
    Science 13,202,607 13,973,633 14,839,829 16,003,317 17,367,500 18,673,331 18,243,230 18,586,298 19,421,125 20,864,673
        Computer sciences 379,594 383,347 424,572 404,851 435,018 493,568 463,837 448,219 461,867 516,123
        Environmental sciences 757,262 824,563 833,101 873,884 970,834 1,032,987 978,180 977,603 975,450 1,102,004
            Atmospheric sciences 93,727 98,158 100,977 91,684 85,335 94,587 90,668 97,278 87,405 95,301
            Earth sciences 291,272 303,933 305,785 309,560 347,460 374,356 349,906 341,906 349,343 395,990
            Oceanography 231,868 266,552 278,514 320,774 365,030 365,876 355,031 343,887 351,623 390,090
            Environmental sciences, nec 140,395 155,920 147,825 151,866 173,009 198,168 182,575 194,532 187,079 220,623
        Life sciences 9,282,234 9,912,060 10,523,827 11,478,799 12,533,706 13,456,150 13,248,207 13,670,675 14,443,509 15,334,784
            Agricultural sciences 1,828,450 1,812,357 1,913,578 2,016,151 2,133,075 2,192,134 2,029,713 2,070,868 2,160,434 2,242,353
            Biological sciences 2,409,143 2,645,464 2,802,240 3,018,885 3,398,797 3,524,454 3,357,028 3,640,184 3,881,471 4,084,618
            Medical sciences 4,647,820 4,981,130 5,367,676 5,990,490 6,505,457 7,171,918 7,199,538 7,214,840 7,636,086 8,154,955
            Life sciences, nec 396,821 473,109 440,333 453,273 496,377 567,644 661,928 744,783 765,518 852,858
        Mathematical sciences 130,702 148,340 157,901 164,462 172,455 178,185 176,496 181,393 183,762 206,488
        Physical sciences 978,725 1,031,490 1,113,616 1,174,390 1,188,880 1,319,680 1,238,557 1,242,623 1,236,283 1,336,749
            Astronomy 131,120 143,457 152,532 162,059 186,001 190,501 167,264 174,886 171,381 158,099
            Chemistry 397,388 419,787 446,177 484,692 494,446 545,130 550,006 541,063 536,495 570,397
            Physics 353,339 370,322 395,731 396,045 391,733 509,085 440,721 447,885 453,010 529,532
            Physical sciences, nec 96,878 97,924 119,176 131,594 116,700 74,964 80,566 78,789 75,397 78,721
        Psychology 196,260 215,553 246,388 269,124 290,212 316,123 319,952 323,772 321,202 362,538
        Social sciences 978,700 987,576 993,375 1,040,415 1,133,696 1,226,214 1,095,977 1,115,417 1,135,840 1,272,948
            Economics 208,166 215,729 219,484 224,913 271,045 258,178 222,310 238,520 239,272 269,937
            Political sciences 195,241 210,929 210,053 213,499 214,324 231,605 221,902 221,784 248,934 283,321
            Sociology 173,374 176,779 183,248 190,867 200,607 206,570 193,815 200,208 211,901 243,509
            Social sciences, nec 401,919 384,139 380,590 411,136 447,720 529,861 457,950 454,905 435,733 476,181
        Sciences, nec 499,130 470,704 547,049 597,392 642,699 650,424 722,024 626,596 663,212 733,039
    Engineering 2,407,916 2,613,775 2,787,292 3,061,420 3,232,661 3,613,527 3,606,932 3,762,408 3,846,713 4,235,576
        Aeronautical and astronautical engineering 102,508 110,040 97,676 130,995 137,873 182,439 168,243 163,230 160,725 176,401
        Bioengineering and biomedical engineering 134,532 164,751 182,289 218,329 237,764 262,563 273,912 301,989 319,487 328,318
        Chemical engineering 224,812 210,636 240,012 276,620 314,560 336,116 399,618 426,365 402,360 430,868
        Civil engineering 441,378 450,415 523,691 506,663 539,287 580,171 645,721 663,812 662,876 718,467
        Electrical engineering 467,130 534,913 539,312 571,924 593,766 644,353 677,607 696,011 710,453 771,568
        Mechanical engineering 287,651 309,182 362,790 430,765 425,208 443,007 506,018 524,583 514,971 586,421
        Metallurgical and materials engineering 213,305 242,778 257,097 255,310 269,644 298,970 274,503 282,842 295,397 346,714
        Engineering, nec 536,600 591,060 584,425 670,814 714,559 865,908 661,310 703,576 780,444 876,819
    Non-S&Ea 924,498 991,079 1,109,478 1,284,699 1,412,730 1,558,987 1,930,136 2,162,667 2,325,405 2,470,748
        Business and management 166,790 168,275 194,766 221,668 264,613 276,460 281,747 300,125 345,886 380,913
        Communications, journalism, and library science 48,252 49,190 54,869 59,834 60,551 77,875 88,609 100,311 106,416 97,672
        Education 296,452 337,359 382,580 432,043 419,977 441,405 458,498 485,554 544,151 553,675
        Humanities 128,850 134,406 161,047 181,612 190,623 195,041 205,260 251,149 271,668 312,013
        Law 33,075 35,437 41,126 45,219 62,431 84,760 78,783 97,407 106,911 151,013
        Social work 47,089 61,570 49,308 52,883 64,821 76,384 82,943 89,156 90,086 100,564
        Visual and performing arts 33,393 38,136 42,496 42,143 55,563 68,674 61,632 70,652 73,944 81,034
        Non-S&E, nec 152,807 166,565 183,285 249,187 294,023 338,388 672,664 768,313 786,343 793,864

nec = not elsewhere classified; S&E = science and engineering.
a Prior to FY 2010, some institution totals for all fields of R&D expenditures may be lower-bound estimates because the National Science Foundation did not attempt to estimate for nonresponse on non-S&E R&D expenditures item prior to FY 2010.
NOTE: Non-S&E detailed field data may not sum to total non-S&E R&D expenditures because some institutions reporting non-S&E R&D expenditures did not break out total and federal funds by non-S&E fields.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Higher Education Research and Development Survey.
Data from survey cycle FY 2013, as of 31 July 2014.