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Table 13. Higher education R&D expenditures, by type of cost, highest degree granted, and institutional control: FYs 2012–13
(Dollars in thousands)
  2012 2013
  Highest degree granted Institutional control   Highest degree granted Institutional control
Type of cost All institutions Doctorate Nondoctorate Public Private All institutions Doctorate Nondoctorate Public Private
All R&D expenditures 65,744,254 64,709,107 1,035,147 44,176,507 21,567,747 67,041,154 66,164,960 876,194 44,870,141 22,171,013
    Direct costs 49,908,751 49,031,004 877,747 34,350,566 15,558,185 51,096,679 50,333,208 763,471 35,009,416 16,087,263
        Salaries, wages, and fringe benefits 28,346,520 27,907,542 438,978 19,956,241 8,390,279 28,806,710 28,452,035 354,675 20,219,477 8,587,233
        Software purchases 100,916 95,520 5,396 80,983 19,933 109,496 102,363 7,133 82,681 26,815
            Noncapitalized 90,735 86,028 4,707 72,376 18,359 97,499 90,534 6,965 74,041 23,458
            Capitalized 10,181 9,492 689 8,607 1,574 11,997 11,829 168 8,640 3,357
        Capitalized equipment 2,038,114 1,994,099 44,015 1,474,590 563,524 2,251,846 2,218,973 32,873 1,653,126 598,720
        Passed through to subrecipients 5,535,940 5,473,685 62,255 3,506,367 2,029,573 5,701,902 5,652,504 49,398 3,619,776 2,082,126
        Other direct costs 13,887,261 13,560,158 327,103 9,332,385 4,554,876 14,226,725 13,907,333 319,392 9,434,356 4,792,369
    Indirect costs 15,835,503 15,678,103 157,400 9,825,941 6,009,562 15,944,475 15,831,752 112,723 9,860,725 6,083,750
        Recovered 11,227,165 11,127,640 99,525 6,558,924 4,668,241 11,221,376 11,145,055 76,321 6,540,926 4,680,450
        Unrecovered 4,608,338 4,550,463 57,875 3,267,017 1,341,321 4,723,099 4,686,697 36,402 3,319,799 1,403,300

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Higher Education Research and Development Survey.
Data from survey cycle FY 2013, as of 31 July 2014.