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Table 7-4. Employed U.S. scientists and engineers with a doctorate as the highest degree, by field of highest degree, employment sector, and primary or secondary work activity: 2013
 

Level and field of highest degree and employment sector                Primary or secondary work activity
Employed scientists and engineers Computer applications Management, sales, administration Research and development Teaching Other
Number SE Number SE Number SE Number SE Number SE Number SE
Doctorate 1,154,000 16,000 91,000 3,500 455,000 9,500 703,000 12,000 359,000 9,500 267,000 8,500
Business/ industry 501,000 10,500 64,000 3,000 240,000 7,500 290,000 7,500 24,000 3,000 158,000 7,500
4-year college/ university 493,000 9,500 20,000 2,000 150,000 5,500 335,000 8,000 280,000 7,000 69,000 3,500
Other educational institution 68,000 7,000 1,000 500 22,000 2,500 18,000 4,000 52,000 6,500 12,000 2,000
Government 93,000 3,500 6,000 500 43,000 2,500 60,000 3,000 3,000 1,000 28,000 2,500
S&E field 873,000 8,000 82,000 3,000 335,000 5,000 571,000 7,000 230,000 4,000 189,000 4,000
Business/ industry 399,000 5,500 59,000 2,500 184,000 4,000 251,000 4,500 13,000 1,000 111,000 2,500
4-year college/ university 363,000 5,500 18,000 2,000 105,000 2,500 260,000 5,000 192,000 3,500 46,000 2,000
Other educational institution 30,000 1,500 1,000 500 9,000 1,000 6,000 500 23,000 1,500 7,000 1,000
Government 81,000 3,000 6,000 500 38,000 2,000 54,000 2,500 2,000 500 25,000 2,000
Science 706,000 7,000 57,000 2,500 274,000 4,500 445,000 6,500 206,000 4,000 167,000 3,500
Business/ industry 290,000 4,500 38,000 2,000 139,000 4,000 170,000 4,000 11,000 1,000 94,000 2,000
4-year college/ university 320,000 5,000 14,000 1,500 94,000 2,500 227,000 4,500 171,000 3,500 43,000 2,000
Other educational institution 28,000 1,500 1,000 500 8,000 500 5,000 500 22,000 1,500 7,000 1,000
Government 68,000 3,000 4,000 500 32,000 2,000 43,000 2,500 2,000 500 23,000 2,000
Biological/ agricultural/ environmental life sciences 254,000 5,000 11,000 1,500 107,000 3,500 181,000 4,500 55,000 2,000 52,000 2,500
Business/ industry 95,000 3,500 6,000 1,000 49,000 2,500 64,000 3,000 3,000 500 25,000 1,500
4-year college/ university 124,000 3,500 4,000 1,000 42,000 2,000 95,000 3,500 44,000 2,000 18,000 1,500
Other educational institution 7,000 1,000 D D 2,000 500 2,000 500 6,000 500 1,000 500
Government 27,000 2,000 1,000 500 14,000 1,500 20,000 2,000 1,000 500 7,000 2,000
Agricultural/ food sciences 20,000 1,000 * * 10,000 1,000 14,000 1,000 4,000 500 3,000 500
Business/ industry 8,000 1,000 * * 5,000 500 5,000 500 * * 2,000 500
4-year college/ university 9,000 1,000 * * 3,000 1,000 7,000 1,000 3,000 500 1,000 500
Other educational institution 1,000 500 D D * * * * 1,000 500 D D
Government 2,000 500 D D 1,000 500 2,000 500 D D 1,000 500
Biological sciences 226,000 5,000 10,000 1,500 94,000 3,500 161,000 4,500 48,000 2,000 47,000 2,500
Business/ industry 85,000 3,000 5,000 1,000 42,000 2,500 57,000 3,000 3,000 500 23,000 1,500
4-year college/ university 112,000 3,500 4,000 1,000 38,000 2,000 86,000 3,500 39,000 2,000 17,000 1,500
Other educational institution 6,000 500 D D 2,000 500 1,000 500 6,000 500 1,000 500
Government 23,000 2,000 1,000 500 12,000 1,500 17,000 2,000 1,000 500 7,000 1,500
Environmental life sciences 8,000 500 1,000 500 4,000 500 6,000 500 2,000 500 1,000 500
Business/ industry 2,000 500 * * 1,000 500 2,000 500 * * 1,000 500
4-year college/ university 3,000 500 * * 1,000 500 2,000 500 2,000 500 * *
Other educational institution * * D D D D D D * * D D
Government 2,000 500 D D 1,000 500 2,000 500 D D * *
Computer/ mathematical sciences 70,000 2,500 22,000 1,500 19,000 1,500 45,000 2,000 28,000 2,000 8,000 1,000
Business/ industry 30,000 1,500 17,000 1,500 11,000 1,500 19,000 1,000 * * 3,000 500
4-year college/ university 36,000 2,000 4,000 1,000 7,000 1,000 24,000 2,000 26,000 2,000 4,000 1,000
Other educational institution 2,000 500 D D * * * * 2,000 500 * *
Government 3,000 500 1,000 500 1,000 500 2,000 500 D D * *
Computer/ information sciences 30,000 2,000 12,000 1,500 9,000 1,500 19,000 1,500 8,000 1,000 3,000 1,000
Business/ industry 17,000 1,500 10,000 1,500 6,000 1,500 11,000 1,000 * * 1,000 500
4-year college/ university 13,000 1,500 2,000 500 2,000 500 8,000 1,000 8,000 1,000 2,000 1,000
Other educational institution * * D D D D D D * * D D
Government 1,000 500 * * * * 1,000 500 D D D D
Mathematics/ statistics 39,000 1,500 9,000 1,000 10,000 1,000 26,000 1,500 20,000 1,500 4,000 500
Business/ industry 13,000 1,000 7,000 1,000 5,000 500 9,000 1,000 * * 2,000 500
4-year college/ university 23,000 1,500 2,000 1,000 4,000 500 16,000 1,500 18,000 1,500 2,000 500
Other educational institution 1,000 500 D D * * * * 1,000 500 D D
Government 2,000 500 1,000 500 1,000 500 1,000 500 D D * *
Physical sciences 167,000 4,000 19,000 1,500 63,000 3,000 118,000 3,500 39,000 2,000 23,000 1,500
Business/ industry 86,000 3,000 12,000 1,500 40,000 2,500 60,000 2,500 2,000 500 15,000 1,000
4-year college/ university 58,000 2,500 4,000 1,000 16,000 1,500 43,000 2,500 31,000 2,000 5,000 500
Other educational institution 6,000 1,000 D D 2,000 500 1,000 500 6,000 1,000 1,000 500
Government 16,000 1,500 2,000 500 6,000 1,000 13,000 1,500 * * 2,000 500
Chemistry, except biochemistry 80,000 2,500 4,000 1,000 35,000 2,000 54,000 2,500 18,000 1,500 13,000 1,000
Business/ industry 47,000 2,000 3,000 1,000 24,000 2,000 33,000 2,000 1,000 500 9,000 1,000
4-year college/ university 24,000 1,500 1,000 500 7,000 1,000 17,000 1,500 14,000 1,000 2,000 500
Other educational institution 3,000 500 D D 1,000 500 * * 3,000 500 1,000 500
Government 5,000 500 * * 2,000 500 4,000 500 * * 1,000 500
Earth/ atmospheric/ ocean sciences 20,000 1,000 2,000 500 7,000 500 15,000 1,000 6,000 1,000 3,000 500
Business/ industry 7,000 1,000 1,000 500 3,000 500 5,000 1,000 * * 1,000 500
4-year college/ university 9,000 1,000 1,000 500 3,000 500 7,000 1,000 5,000 500 1,000 500
Other educational institution 1,000 500 D D * * D D 1,000 500 * *
Government 3,000 500 * * 1,000 500 3,000 500 D D 1,000 500
Physics/ astronomy 64,000 3,000 12,000 1,500 21,000 2,000 47,000 2,500 14,000 1,500 7,000 1,000
Business/ industry 31,000 2,500 8,000 1,000 13,000 2,000 22,000 1,500 1,000 500 4,000 500
4-year college/ university 24,000 2,000 3,000 1,000 6,000 1,000 19,000 2,000 12,000 1,500 2,000 500
Other educational institution 2,000 500 D D * * * * 2,000 500 * *
Government 7,000 1,500 1,000 500 2,000 500 6,000 1,500 D D 1,000 500
Other physical sciences 2,000 500 * * 1,000 500 2,000 500 1,000 500 * *
Business/ industry 1,000 500 D D * * * * D D * *
4-year college/ university 1,000 500 D D * * 1,000 500 * * D D
Other educational institution D D D D D D D D D D D D
Government 1,000 500 D D * * 1,000 500 D D * *
Social sciences 216,000 3,000 5,000 1,000 84,000 1,500 102,000 2,500 84,000 2,500 84,000 2,000
Business/ industry 79,000 2,000 3,000 500 39,000 1,500 27,000 1,500 6,000 500 50,000 1,500
4-year college/ university 102,000 2,500 1,000 500 30,000 1,000 65,000 2,000 69,000 2,000 16,000 1,000
Other educational institution 13,000 1,500 * * 4,000 500 3,000 500 8,000 1,500 5,000 500
Government 22,000 1,500 1,000 500 11,000 1,000 8,000 500 1,000 500 13,000 1,000
Economics 28,000 1,000 2,000 500 10,000 1,000 20,000 1,000 11,000 1,000 6,000 500
Business/ industry 11,000 1,000 1,000 500 5,000 500 7,000 1,000 * * 4,000 500
4-year college/ university 14,000 1,000 * * 3,000 500 11,000 1,000 10,000 1,000 1,000 500
Other educational institution 1,000 500 D D * * * * 1,000 500 D D
Government 3,000 500 * * 2,000 500 2,000 500 D D 1,000 500
Political/ related sciences 22,000 1,000 * * 9,000 1,000 12,000 1,000 13,000 1,000 5,000 500
Business/ industry 5,000 500 * * 4,000 500 2,000 500 * * 2,000 500
4-year college/ university 15,000 1,000 D D 4,000 500 9,000 1,000 11,000 1,000 2,000 500
Other educational institution 1,000 500 D D * * * * 1,000 500 D D
Government 1,000 500 D D 1,000 500 * * D D * *
Psychology 115,000 2,000 2,000 500 48,000 1,500 40,000 1,500 33,000 1,500 64,000 2,000
Business/ industry 54,000 1,500 1,000 500 25,000 1,000 12,000 1,000 5,000 500 41,000 1,500
4-year college/ university 39,000 1,500 1,000 500 14,000 1,000 23,000 1,500 23,000 1,500 9,000 500
Other educational institution 8,000 1,500 D D 3,000 500 2,000 500 4,000 1,500 4,000 500
Government 14,000 1,000 * * 7,000 500 3,000 500 1,000 500 10,000 1,000
Sociology/ anthropology 30,000 1,500 * * 10,000 500 19,000 1,500 17,000 1,000 5,000 500
Business/ industry 5,000 500 * * 3,000 500 3,000 500 * * 2,000 500
4-year college/ university 22,000 1,500 * * 6,000 500 14,000 1,500 16,000 1,000 2,000 500
Other educational institution 1,000 500 D D * * * * 1,000 500 * *
Government 2,000 500 D D 1,000 500 1,000 500 D D 1,000 500
Other social sciences 21,000 1,500 1,000 500 8,000 1,000 12,000 1,000 11,000 1,000 4,000 500
Business/ industry 5,000 500 * * 3,000 500 3,000 500 * * 2,000 500
4-year college/ university 13,000 1,500 D D 4,000 500 8,000 1,000 10,000 1,000 2,000 500
Other educational institution 2,000 500 D D 1,000 500 * * 1,000 500 * *
Government 2,000 500 * * 1,000 500 1,000 500 D D * *
Engineering 166,000 3,000 26,000 2,000 61,000 2,000 125,000 3,000 24,000 1,500 22,000 1,500
Business/ industry 109,000 2,500 20,000 1,500 44,000 1,500 81,000 2,500 2,000 500 17,000 1,500
4-year college/ university 43,000 1,500 4,000 1,000 11,000 1,000 33,000 1,500 21,000 1,000 3,000 500
Other educational institution 2,000 500 D D 1,000 500 * * 1,000 500 * *
Government 13,000 1,500 1,000 500 6,000 1,500 10,000 1,500 D D 2,000 500
Aerospace/ related engineering 6,000 1,000 1,000 500 2,000 500 5,000 500 1,000 500 1,000 500
Business/ industry 4,000 500 1,000 500 1,000 500 3,000 500 D D * *
4-year college/ university 1,000 500 * * * * 1,000 500 1,000 500 * *
Other educational institution D D D D D D D D D D D D
Government 1,000 500 * * * * 1,000 500 D D D D
Chemical engineering 20,000 1,500 2,000 500 8,000 1,000 14,000 1,000 2,000 500 3,000 1,000
Business/ industry 15,000 1,500 1,000 500 7,000 1,000 11,000 1,000 * * 3,000 1,000
4-year college/ university 4,000 1,000 * * 1,000 500 3,000 500 2,000 500 * *
Other educational institution * * D D D D D D * * D D
Government 1,000 500 * * * * * * D D * *
Civil/ architectural engineering 13,000 1,000 1,000 500 6,000 500 9,000 1,000 3,000 500 2,000 500
Business/ industry 7,000 1,000 1,000 500 4,000 500 5,000 500 D D 2,000 500
4-year college/ university 4,000 500 * * 1,000 500 3,000 500 3,000 500 * *
Other educational institution D D D D D D D D D D D D
Government 1,000 500 D D 1,000 500 1,000 500 D D * *
Electrical/ computer engineering 53,000 2,500 13,000 1,500 17,000 1,500 41,000 2,000 7,000 1,000 5,000 1,000
Business/ industry 38,000 2,000 11,000 1,500 13,000 1,000 30,000 1,500 * * 4,000 1,000
4-year college/ university 11,000 1,000 1,000 500 3,000 500 8,000 1,000 6,000 500 1,000 500
Other educational institution * * D D D D D D D D D D
Government 3,000 1,500 * * S S 3,000 1,500 D D * *
Industrial engineering 5,000 1,000 1,000 500 2,000 500 4,000 1,000 1,000 500 1,000 500
Business/ industry 2,000 500 1,000 500 1,000 500 2,000 500 D D * *
4-year college/ university 2,000 500 D D * * 2,000 500 1,000 500 D D
Other educational institution D D D D D D D D D D D D
Government * * D D * * * * D D D D
Mechanical engineering 24,000 1,500 3,000 500 9,000 1,000 18,000 1,500 4,000 500 3,000 1,000
Business/ industry 15,000 1,500 2,000 500 6,000 500 11,000 1,000 D D 2,000 1,000
4-year college/ university 7,000 1,000 * * 2,000 500 5,000 1,000 3,000 500 * *
Other educational institution * * D D D D D D * * D D
Government 2,000 500 * * 1,000 500 2,000 500 D D * *
Other engineering 46,000 1,500 6,000 1,000 18,000 1,000 34,000 1,500 6,000 1,000 7,000 1,000
Business/ industry 27,000 1,500 3,000 500 12,000 1,000 20,000 1,000 1,000 500 5,000 1,000
4-year college/ university 13,000 1,000 2,000 1,000 3,000 500 11,000 1,000 5,000 500 1,000 500
Other educational institution 1,000 500 D D * * D D 1,000 500 D D
Government 4,000 500 * * 2,000 500 3,000 500 D D 1,000 500
S&E-related field 89,000 7,000 3,000 1,000 29,000 2,500 48,000 5,000 29,000 2,500 33,000 5,500
Business/ industry 39,000 5,500 2,000 1,000 17,000 2,500 17,000 3,500 2,000 1,000 21,000 5,000
4-year college/ university 39,000 3,000 S S 9,000 1,000 26,000 2,500 22,000 2,000 9,000 2,000
Other educational institution 5,000 2,000 D D 2,000 1,000 S S 4,000 2,000 1,000 500
Government 6,000 1,500 * * 2,000 500 4,000 1,500 S S 2,000 1,000
Health 70,000 6,000 2,000 1,000 23,000 2,000 37,000 4,000 19,000 2,000 31,000 5,500
Business/ industry 33,000 5,500 1,000 500 12,000 2,000 14,000 3,500 2,000 1,000 21,000 5,000
4-year college/ university 30,000 2,500 1,000 500 9,000 1,000 19,000 2,500 16,000 1,500 8,000 2,000
Other educational institution 2,000 500 D D 1,000 500 * * 1,000 500 1,000 500
Government 6,000 1,500 * * 2,000 500 4,000 1,500 S S 2,000 1,000
Science/ mathematics teacher education 12,000 2,500 D D 4,000 1,500 5,000 2,000 8,000 2,000 D D
Business/ industry D D D D D D D D D D D D
4-year college/ university 6,000 1,500 D D D D 4,000 1,500 4,000 1,500 D D
Other educational institution 4,000 1,500 D D D D D D 4,000 1,500 D D
Government D D D D D D D D D D D D
Technology/ technical fields 4,000 1,500 D D 1,000 1,000 3,000 1,000 S S D D
Business/ industry 3,000 1,000 D D 1,000 1,000 2,000 1,000 D D D D
4-year college/ university 1,000 1,000 D D D D 1,000 1,000 S S D D
Other educational institution D D D D D D D D D D D D
Government D D D D D D D D D D D D
Other S&E-related fields 2,000 1,000 D D * * 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 S S
Business/ industry S S D D D D D D D D * *
4-year college/ university 1,000 1,000 D D D D 1,000 500 1,000 1,000 D D
Other educational institution D D D D D D D D D D D D
Government D D D D D D D D D D D D
Non-S&E field 192,000 11,000 5,000 1,500 91,000 7,500 85,000 7,500 100,000 8,500 45,000 5,500
Business/ industry 63,000 6,500 4,000 1,500 40,000 6,000 22,000 4,000 9,000 2,500 26,000 5,000
4-year college/ university 91,000 6,500 1,000 500 36,000 4,500 49,000 5,500 66,000 5,500 13,000 2,500
Other educational institution 33,000 6,500 D D 11,000 2,500 11,000 4,000 25,000 6,000 5,000 1,500
Government 6,000 2,000 D D 4,000 1,500 2,000 1,500 D D S S
Art/ humanities fields 27,000 4,500 D D 16,000 4,000 15,000 3,500 12,000 2,500 5,000 1,500
Business/ industry 9,000 3,000 D D 7,000 3,000 S S D D 2,000 1,000
4-year college/ university 16,000 3,500 D D 8,000 3,000 11,000 3,000 10,000 2,000 3,000 1,500
Other educational institution 2,000 1,000 D D D D S S 2,000 1,000 D D
Government S S D D D D D D D D D D
Education, except science/ math teacher education 73,000 7,500 2,000 1,500 40,000 4,500 21,000 4,000 37,000 6,000 19,000 3,500
Business/ industry 18,000 3,500 D D 10,000 2,500 8,000 2,500 S S 8,000 2,500
4-year college/ university 29,000 3,500 D D 17,000 3,000 8,000 1,500 17,000 2,500 6,000 1,500
Other educational institution 24,000 6,000 D D 10,000 2,500 S S 17,000 5,500 4,000 1,500
Government 2,000 1,000 D D 2,000 1,000 D D D D D D
Management/ administration 21,000 4,000 D D 8,000 2,500 14,000 3,500 14,000 3,500 2,000 1,000
Business/ industry 7,000 2,500 D D 6,000 2,500 S S D D S S
4-year college/ university 12,000 2,500 D D 2,000 1,000 10,000 2,000 10,000 2,000 D D
Other educational institution D D D D D D D D D D D D
Government * * D D D D D D D D D D
Sales/ marketing 7,000 2,500 D D D D 5,000 2,500 6,000 2,500 D D
Business/ industry D D D D D D D D D D D D
4-year college/ university 4,000 1,500 D D D D 3,000 1,500 4,000 1,500 D D
Other educational institution D D D D D D D D D D D D
Government D D D D D D D D D D D D
Social service/ related 37,000 4,500 2,000 1,000 14,000 3,500 14,000 2,500 19,000 3,000 13,000 4,000
Business/ industry 18,000 4,000 D D 9,000 3,500 4,000 1,500 3,000 1,500 11,000 3,500
4-year college/ university 17,000 2,500 D D 5,000 1,500 9,000 2,000 15,000 2,500 3,000 1,500
Other educational institution 1,000 1,000 D D D D D D S S D D
Government D D D D D D D D D D D D
Other non-S&E field 28,000 3,500 D D 11,000 2,500 17,000 2,500 12,000 2,000 6,000 2,500
Business/ industry 10,000 2,500 D D 7,000 2,000 5,000 1,500 D D S S
4-year college/ university 14,000 2,500 D D 4,000 1,000 10,000 2,000 11,000 2,000 S S
Other educational institution 1,000 500 D D D D D D 1,000 500 D D
Government 2,000 1,000 D D D D D D D D D D

Data codes used in these tables: * = value < 500. D = suppressed to avoid disclosure of confidential information. S = suppressed for reliability; coefficient of variation exceeds publication standards.
Abbreviations used in these tables: S&E = science and engineering; SE = standard error.
NOTES: Numbers are rounded to the nearest 1,000. Standard errors for numbers are rounded up to the nearest 500. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. Scientists and engineers are bachelor's and higher degreed individuals living in the United States with an S&E or S&E-related degree or occupation. See appendix for additional details on coverage, eligibility, educational field classification, and occupational classification. Business/industry includes self-employed individuals, nonprofit organizations, and other unspecified types of employers. Four-year college/university includes medical schools and university-affiliated research institutes. Other educational institution includes 2-year colleges, precollege institutions, and other educational institutions. Government includes federal (civilian), military, state, and local employers. The doctorate estimates are from the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), which represents the total U.S. college educated population. This is in contrast to the doctorate estimates from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients, which represent the population of U.S. doctorate degree recipients.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT): 2013.
Data from survey cycle 2013, as of 24 February 2015.