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Table 14-1. Median annual salaries of employed U.S. scientists and engineers at all degree levels, by occupation, citizenship status, and employment sector: 2013
 

Occupation and citizenship status                Sector of employment
Employed scientists and engineers Business/ industry 4-year college/ university Other educational institution Government
Median salary SE Median salary SE Median salary SE Median salary SE Median salary SE
All occupations 65,000 500 71,000 2,000 51,000 1,500 48,000 500 70,000 1,500
U.S. citizen 65,000 500 70,000 500 53,000 2,000 48,000 500 70,000 1,000
Native-born 64,000 1,000 70,000 500 51,000 1,500 48,000 1,000 69,000 2,000
Naturalized 74,000 2,500 80,000 1,000 69,000 5,500 45,000 7,500 72,000 3,000
Non-U.S. citizen 70,000 1,000 78,000 3,000 39,000 2,000 35,000 7,500 52,000 9,500
Permanent resident 69,000 3,500 70,000 3,000 64,000 2,500 35,000 10,500 52,000 13,500
Temporary resident 71,000 2,500 83,000 3,500 25,000 1,000 35,000 4,500 52,000 7,000
S&E occupations 80,000 500 87,000 1,500 45,000 1,500 52,000 2,000 78,000 2,000
U.S. citizen 80,000 500 86,000 1,500 50,000 1,000 52,000 2,000 78,000 2,000
Native-born 78,000 1,000 85,000 500 46,000 2,500 51,000 2,500 76,000 2,500
Naturalized 90,000 1,000 100,000 2,000 61,000 4,000 59,000 500 82,000 5,000
Non-U.S. citizen 80,000 2,500 90,000 500 33,000 3,500 42,000 5,500 73,000 6,500
Permanent resident 90,000 500 98,000 4,000 60,000 3,500 42,000 6,500 90,000 3,000
Temporary resident 70,000 1,500 85,000 500 24,000 1,500 39,000 16,000 55,000 9,000
Science occupations 75,000 500 85,000 500 46,000 2,500 51,000 2,000 73,000 2,000
U.S. citizen 75,000 500 85,000 1,500 50,000 1,500 52,000 3,000 73,000 2,000
Native-born 72,000 1,000 80,000 500 46,000 2,500 50,000 2,000 72,000 2,000
Naturalized 90,000 1,000 100,000 1,000 60,000 500 59,000 500 79,000 3,000
Non-U.S. citizen 78,000 3,000 90,000 500 37,000 4,000 44,000 7,500 74,000 10,000
Permanent resident 86,000 3,000 95,000 1,500 60,000 1,500 42,000 6,500 90,000 1,000
Temporary resident 70,000 4,000 85,000 2,000 25,000 1,000 62,000 19,000 54,000 9,000
Biological/ agricultural/ other life scientists 58,000 3,000 70,000 3,500 42,000 2,000 44,000 8,000 67,000 4,000
U.S. citizen 60,000 500 69,000 4,000 43,000 2,000 44,000 8,500 68,000 4,500
Native-born 57,000 3,500 62,000 5,000 40,000 1,000 45,000 9,500 65,000 3,000
Naturalized 80,000 4,000 94,000 6,500 60,000 500 S S 95,000 8,000
Non-U.S. citizen 48,000 4,000 70,000 5,000 39,000 2,500 S S 56,000 15,000
Permanent resident 64,000 3,000 82,000 8,000 55,000 5,500 S S 79,000 12,000
Temporary resident 38,000 5,500 51,000 3,000 30,000 3,000 D D 45,000 2,000
Agricultural/ food sciences 52,000 3,000 58,000 2,000 34,000 6,000 D D 51,000 16,500
U.S. citizen 52,000 6,500 59,000 1,500 36,000 6,500 D D 51,000 14,500
Native-born 52,000 7,000 59,000 1,500 31,000 7,500 D D 49,000 13,500
Naturalized 53,000 12,500 64,000 23,000 41,000 3,000 D D 69,000 19,000
Non-U.S. citizen 38,000 2,000 S S 25,000 7,000 D D D D
Permanent resident S S S S 52,000 24,000 D D D D
Temporary resident 27,000 7,000 S S 20,000 5,000 D D D D
Biological and medical scientists 57,000 4,500 74,000 4,500 39,000 1,500 36,000 2,500 69,000 4,500
U.S. citizen 60,000 500 74,000 4,000 40,000 2,000 36,000 3,000 70,000 4,000
Native-born 56,000 4,000 69,000 5,500 35,000 1,500 36,000 1,500 66,000 3,500
Naturalized 81,000 5,500 95,000 4,500 54,000 7,000 S S 107,000 12,000
Non-U.S. citizen 47,000 4,000 76,000 9,500 39,000 3,500 D D 53,000 14,500
Permanent resident 63,000 4,000 89,000 500 49,000 2,500 D D 74,000 18,500
Temporary resident 39,000 4,000 51,000 3,000 30,000 4,500 D D 45,000 2,500
Environmental life scientists 58,000 6,000 49,000 1,000 S S D D 65,000 9,500
U.S. citizen 60,000 5,000 49,000 1,000 S S D D 65,000 10,000
Native-born 60,000 5,500 49,000 1,000 S S D D 65,000 9,500
Naturalized * * D D D D D D * *
Non-U.S. citizen S S D D * * D D D D
Permanent resident S S D D D D D D D D
Temporary resident * * D D D D D D D D
Postsecondary teachers - life/ related sciences 62,000 3,500 D D 65,000 5,000 46,000 10,000 D D
U.S. citizen 61,000 4,000 D D 66,000 5,000 48,000 11,000 D D
Native-born 60,000 2,000 D D 63,000 3,500 49,000 11,000 D D
Naturalized 87,000 5,500 D D 93,000 8,500 S S D D
Non-U.S. citizen 64,000 4,000 D D 65,000 8,500 S S D D
Permanent resident 72,000 6,500 D D 75,000 9,000 S S D D
Temporary resident 18,000 3,500 D D 17,000 4,000 D D D D
Computer/ mathematical scientists 83,000 2,000 89,000 1,500 52,000 1,500 49,000 2,500 75,000 1,500
U.S. citizen 82,000 1,500 88,000 1,500 54,000 2,500 49,000 2,500 75,000 1,500
Native-born 80,000 500 85,000 500 52,000 1,000 48,000 3,500 75,000 1,000
Naturalized 95,000 4,000 100,000 500 64,000 9,500 64,000 2,500 79,000 4,000
Non-U.S. citizen 88,000 3,500 90,000 2,000 37,000 5,000 58,000 18,000 59,000 26,500
Permanent resident 95,000 1,500 98,000 4,000 74,000 9,000 S S S S
Temporary resident 84,000 2,500 86,000 3,500 22,000 4,000 * * S S
Computer and information scientists 85,000 500 89,000 1,000 56,000 4,500 57,000 1,000 75,000 1,500
U.S. citizen 85,000 1,000 88,000 2,000 60,000 3,000 57,000 1,500 75,000 1,500
Native-born 82,000 2,000 85,000 1,000 58,000 5,000 57,000 1,000 75,000 1,000
Naturalized 95,000 5,000 100,000 500 61,000 9,000 83,000 10,000 79,000 5,000
Non-U.S. citizen 90,000 500 90,000 2,000 30,000 14,500 S S 56,000 12,000
Permanent resident 96,000 3,500 98,000 4,000 76,000 27,000 D D S S
Temporary resident 85,000 1,000 87,000 3,500 20,000 1,500 D D 59,000 29,000
Mathematical scientists 70,000 5,000 78,000 5,500 39,000 5,500 S S 74,000 7,500
U.S. citizen 70,000 6,000 76,000 5,500 42,000 4,000 39,000 8,000 74,000 8,000
Native-born 68,000 6,000 72,000 5,000 42,000 4,500 S S 73,000 10,000
Naturalized 77,000 10,500 88,000 2,500 47,000 15,500 D D 93,000 3,500
Non-U.S. citizen 68,000 4,000 82,000 9,000 32,000 4,500 D D * *
Permanent resident 90,000 6,500 98,000 6,000 71,000 3,000 D D * *
Temporary resident 55,000 13,500 73,000 16,000 29,000 3,000 D D D D
Postsecondary teachers - computer/ math sciences 41,000 5,000 D D 47,000 5,500 39,000 5,500 D D
U.S. citizen 41,000 5,500 D D 47,000 6,000 39,000 7,000 D D
Native-born 38,000 4,000 D D 40,000 6,500 36,000 8,500 D D
Naturalized 64,000 12,000 D D 78,000 7,500 40,000 10,000 D D
Non-U.S. citizen 40,000 14,500 D D 46,000 15,500 40,000 5,000 D D
Permanent resident 62,000 6,000 D D 74,000 11,500 40,000 5,000 D D
Temporary resident 25,000 11,000 D D 25,000 9,000 D D D D
Physical/ related scientists 67,000 2,000 75,000 4,500 43,000 4,000 35,000 9,500 78,000 1,500
U.S. citizen 70,000 1,000 75,000 2,000 53,000 4,000 34,000 7,500 76,000 3,000
Native-born 67,000 2,500 71,000 2,000 50,000 2,000 33,000 7,000 75,000 2,000
Naturalized 91,000 6,500 99,000 5,500 77,000 11,500 S S 98,000 9,000
Non-U.S. citizen 50,000 6,500 89,000 5,500 28,000 2,000 58,000 7,000 107,000 19,500
Permanent resident 75,000 4,500 98,000 5,500 63,000 8,000 60,000 6,500 115,000 9,500
Temporary resident 25,000 3,500 80,000 11,000 23,000 1,500 D D 83,000 9,500
Chemists, except biochemists 65,000 2,500 72,000 3,000 26,000 2,000 D D 74,000 5,500
U.S. citizen 67,000 3,000 71,000 2,500 25,000 1,500 D D 73,000 5,500
Native-born 63,000 3,000 69,000 3,000 25,000 1,000 D D 73,000 8,500
Naturalized 83,000 7,500 89,000 8,000 27,000 11,000 D D 76,000 16,500
Non-U.S. citizen 47,000 8,500 85,000 3,000 27,000 3,000 D D * *
Permanent resident 85,000 4,500 86,000 9,000 41,000 6,500 D D D D
Temporary resident 29,000 3,500 72,000 27,500 25,000 3,500 D D * *
Earth/ atmospheric/ ocean scientists 79,000 3,500 89,000 5,500 38,000 4,500 D D 78,000 3,500
U.S. citizen 80,000 2,500 89,000 11,000 44,000 16,500 D D 78,000 4,000
Native-born 79,000 3,000 83,000 8,000 32,000 16,000 D D 78,000 2,000
Naturalized 102,000 14,000 130,000 13,500 63,000 8,000 D D 97,000 11,500
Non-U.S. citizen 59,000 12,500 120,000 11,000 37,000 3,500 D D * *
Permanent resident 101,000 11,000 119,000 20,000 73,000 11,000 D D D D
Temporary resident 36,000 5,500 * * 26,000 7,500 D D * *
Physicists and astronomers 85,000 11,000 118,000 2,500 32,000 3,000 D D 108,000 1,500
U.S. citizen 97,000 5,000 120,000 4,000 33,000 4,500 D D 106,000 6,000
Native-born 93,000 8,500 123,000 5,000 40,000 14,000 D D 100,000 5,500
Naturalized 106,000 10,500 115,000 8,500 30,000 500 D D 132,000 15,000
Non-U.S. citizen 57,000 17,000 99,000 9,000 30,000 7,000 D D 106,000 2,500
Permanent resident 114,000 12,500 111,000 13,000 45,000 17,000 D D 116,000 2,000
Temporary resident 42,000 9,000 74,000 3,000 26,000 7,500 D D D D
Postsecondary teachers - physical/ related sciences 57,000 2,500 D D 63,000 5,000 39,000 8,500 D D
U.S. citizen 62,000 4,000 D D 72,000 3,500 36,000 9,000 D D
Native-born 60,000 3,500 D D 69,000 3,500 35,000 9,000 D D
Naturalized 87,000 12,000 D D 99,000 13,000 S S D D
Non-U.S. citizen S S D D 27,000 12,000 57,000 6,500 D D
Permanent resident 61,000 7,500 D D 63,000 8,500 * * D D
Temporary resident 19,000 2,000 D D 19,000 2,000 D D D D
Other physical/ related scientists 60,000 2,000 59,000 5,000 28,000 2,500 D D 67,000 6,000
U.S. citizen 60,000 2,500 55,000 6,000 29,000 5,000 D D 67,000 6,500
Native-born 59,000 3,000 53,000 4,500 28,000 2,500 D D 67,000 6,000
Naturalized 85,000 13,000 85,000 14,500 * * D D 86,000 36,500
Non-U.S. citizen 58,000 17,500 S S 23,000 2,500 D D D D
Permanent resident 60,000 19,500 S S * * D D D D
Temporary resident S S * * 22,000 4,000 D D D D
Social science, psychology 57,000 2,500 60,000 1,000 44,000 4,500 55,000 4,000 67,000 6,000
U.S. citizen 58,000 2,500 60,000 500 47,000 4,500 56,000 3,500 66,000 4,500
Native-born 57,000 2,500 60,000 500 43,000 5,500 55,000 1,500 70,000 4,500
Naturalized 59,000 500 60,000 17,000 59,000 8,500 55,000 2,000 61,000 10,500
Non-U.S. citizen 44,000 7,500 89,000 30,500 27,000 2,500 S S S S
Permanent resident 59,000 9,500 S S 60,000 7,500 S S S S
Temporary resident 26,000 2,500 123,000 13,000 20,000 1,000 D D D D
Economists 78,000 12,500 95,000 6,500 17,000 5,500 D D 90,000 500
U.S. citizen 79,000 13,000 81,000 13,500 21,000 5,500 D D 90,000 500
Native-born 75,000 14,500 74,000 16,500 20,000 8,000 D D 90,000 500
Naturalized 94,000 4,000 96,000 6,000 * * D D 91,000 26,500
Non-U.S. citizen S S 131,000 26,000 16,000 500 D D * *
Permanent resident 107,000 11,500 115,000 10,000 * * D D * *
Temporary resident S S 147,000 40,500 16,000 500 D D D D
Political scientists 79,000 20,500 117,000 33,000 S S D D 62,000 15,000
U.S. citizen 77,000 20,000 108,000 30,000 14,000 7,000 D D 62,000 15,000
Native-born 79,000 21,000 111,000 31,000 S S D D 62,000 13,500
Naturalized * * D D D D D D D D
Non-U.S. citizen S S D D S S D D D D
Permanent resident D D D D D D D D D D
Temporary resident S S D D D D D D D D
Postsecondary teachers - social/ related sciences 52,000 2,000 D D 55,000 3,000 27,000 6,000 D D
U.S. citizen 52,000 2,500 D D 56,000 4,000 27,000 7,500 D D
Native-born 52,000 2,000 D D 54,000 4,000 37,000 15,000 D D
Naturalized 58,000 4,500 D D 64,000 4,000 9,000 500 D D
Non-U.S. citizen 45,000 11,000 D D 45,000 12,500 S S D D
Permanent resident 62,000 6,000 D D 67,000 8,000 S S D D
Temporary resident 19,000 1,000 D D 19,000 1,000 D D D D
Psychologists 55,000 3,000 50,000 3,500 25,000 4,500 59,000 500 71,000 5,000
U.S. citizen 56,000 2,500 50,000 2,500 23,000 7,500 59,000 500 71,000 5,000
Native-born 55,000 1,500 50,000 3,500 20,000 5,500 59,000 2,500 73,000 4,000
Naturalized 59,000 500 S S S S S S 58,000 8,500
Non-U.S. citizen S S 78,000 25,500 S S D D * *
Permanent resident 78,000 19,500 78,000 30,000 * * D D * *
Temporary resident S S * * S S D D D D
Sociologists and anthropologists 42,000 2,500 43,000 2,500 S S D D 54,000 12,000
U.S. citizen 42,000 2,500 43,000 2,500 S S D D 54,000 12,000
Native-born 41,000 2,500 43,000 2,500 30,000 14,000 D D 53,000 12,000
Naturalized * * * * * * D D D D
Non-U.S. citizen * * * * * * D D D D
Permanent resident * * * * D D D D D D
Temporary resident * * D D * * D D D D
Other social and related scientists 59,000 2,500 63,000 7,500 22,000 9,500 S S 64,000 500
U.S. citizen 60,000 5,500 65,000 5,000 22,000 6,000 S S 64,000 1,500
Native-born 63,000 5,500 65,000 5,000 22,000 5,500 52,000 26,000 64,000 1,000
Naturalized S S 65,000 30,000 S S * * S S
Non-U.S. citizen S S S S 34,000 16,000 D D D D
Permanent resident S S S S S S D D D D
Temporary resident S S 86,000 24,500 S S D D D D
Engineering occupations 90,000 500 90,000 2,500 35,000 4,500 67,000 22,500 90,000 500
U.S. citizen 90,000 500 90,000 2,000 55,000 9,000 71,000 27,000 90,000 500
Native-born 90,000 500 90,000 500 45,000 6,000 68,000 27,000 90,000 500
Naturalized 95,000 1,500 96,000 3,000 84,000 6,000 D D 90,000 1,000
Non-U.S. citizen 80,000 3,500 92,000 3,000 25,000 2,500 D D 70,000 4,000
Permanent resident 100,000 2,500 100,000 2,500 79,000 2,500 D D 73,000 18,500
Temporary resident 65,000 3,000 80,000 3,500 22,000 2,000 D D S S
Aeronautical/ aerospace/ astronautical engineers 105,000 6,500 105,000 7,000 42,000 18,500 D D 112,000 7,500
U.S. citizen 109,000 4,500 109,000 6,500 S S D D 112,000 7,500
Native-born 109,000 6,500 109,000 6,500 S S D D 110,000 4,000
Naturalized 110,000 7,500 102,000 11,000 * * D D 129,000 9,500
Non-U.S. citizen 95,000 8,000 100,000 2,000 S S D D D D
Permanent resident 100,000 2,500 101,000 2,500 D D D D D D
Temporary resident 44,000 7,500 * * S S D D D D
Chemical engineers 95,000 2,500 100,000 1,500 29,000 2,500 D D 89,000 3,500
U.S. citizen 98,000 4,500 100,000 500 27,000 3,500 D D 89,000 6,500
Native-born 100,000 5,500 100,000 500 27,000 3,500 D D 89,000 6,500
Naturalized 96,000 6,500 97,000 7,000 * * D D D D
Non-U.S. citizen 80,000 8,500 92,000 5,500 34,000 10,500 D D D D
Permanent resident 94,000 3,000 95,000 2,500 * * D D D D
Temporary resident 68,000 8,000 82,000 9,500 30,000 9,000 D D D D
Civil, including architectural/ sanitary engineers 80,000 1,500 75,000 1,000 21,000 1,500 D D 85,000 2,000
U.S. citizen 80,000 500 75,000 1,500 S S D D 86,000 2,000
Native-born 79,000 2,500 75,000 3,000 S S D D 85,000 3,500
Naturalized 89,000 2,000 84,000 8,000 D D D D 89,000 1,500
Non-U.S. citizen 66,000 4,000 70,000 6,000 21,000 1,500 D D 68,000 2,500
Permanent resident 78,000 6,000 80,000 6,500 D D D D 69,000 2,000
Temporary resident S S 64,000 1,500 21,000 1,500 D D * *
Electrical/ computer hardware engineers 99,000 3,500 100,000 500 30,000 3,000 S S 95,000 4,000
U.S. citizen 100,000 2,500 100,000 500 52,000 19,500 D D 95,000 4,000
Native-born 98,000 2,000 100,000 3,000 52,000 26,000 D D 96,000 7,000
Naturalized 102,000 4,000 105,000 2,500 50,000 6,000 D D 90,000 2,500
Non-U.S. citizen 99,000 5,500 100,000 5,000 24,000 5,000 D D D D
Permanent resident 110,000 8,000 112,000 12,000 S S D D D D
Temporary resident 85,000 2,500 90,000 2,000 20,000 6,000 D D D D
Industrial engineers 79,000 2,000 78,000 2,500 S S D D 94,000 1,500
U.S. citizen 80,000 1,500 79,000 2,500 * * D D 94,000 1,500
Native-born 79,000 2,500 78,000 3,000 * * D D 93,000 1,500
Naturalized 84,000 9,000 80,000 8,500 D D D D D D
Non-U.S. citizen 69,000 6,000 73,000 5,500 25,000 12,000 D D D D
Permanent resident 73,000 14,000 72,000 14,500 D D D D D D
Temporary resident 65,000 5,000 72,000 6,000 24,000 11,500 D D D D
Mechanical engineers 85,000 1,500 86,000 2,000 23,000 1,500 D D 91,000 5,000
U.S. citizen 87,000 2,500 87,000 2,500 28,000 2,500 D D 93,000 5,000
Native-born 86,000 2,500 85,000 2,500 28,000 2,500 D D 93,000 4,500
Naturalized 90,000 2,500 90,000 4,000 S S D D 65,000 13,000
Non-U.S. citizen 73,000 3,500 80,000 3,000 20,000 3,500 D D D D
Permanent resident 87,000 4,500 87,000 5,000 * * D D D D
Temporary resident 60,000 5,000 75,000 5,000 19,000 2,000 D D D D
Postsecondary teachers - engineering 76,000 5,000 D D 78,000 4,500 58,000 4,500 D D
U.S. citizen 85,000 5,000 D D 86,000 5,000 58,000 4,500 D D
Native-born 74,000 7,500 D D 78,000 6,500 57,000 4,500 D D
Naturalized 104,000 9,000 D D 108,000 7,000 * * D D
Non-U.S. citizen S S D D S S D D D D
Permanent resident 81,000 2,500 D D 81,000 2,500 D D D D
Temporary resident 20,000 3,000 D D 20,000 3,000 D D D D
Other engineers 90,000 1,000 93,000 2,500 27,000 2,500 D D 89,000 4,500
U.S. citizen 90,000 2,500 94,000 2,500 26,000 3,500 D D 89,000 5,000
Native-born 91,000 2,500 93,000 2,500 25,000 3,500 D D 90,000 3,500
Naturalized 90,000 500 95,000 6,000 S S D D 69,000 17,000
Non-U.S. citizen 79,000 4,000 86,000 7,000 27,000 4,000 D D S S
Permanent resident 100,000 4,500 102,000 6,000 54,000 16,500 D D S S
Temporary resident 59,000 8,500 79,000 2,500 23,000 4,500 D D D D
S&E-related occupations 65,000 500 72,000 1,500 62,000 3,000 49,000 2,000 70,000 2,000
U.S. citizen 65,000 500 72,000 2,000 63,000 2,500 49,000 2,000 70,000 2,500
Native-born 64,000 1,000 70,000 500 60,000 2,000 50,000 2,000 70,000 2,500
Naturalized 75,000 2,000 79,000 1,500 75,000 2,000 42,000 11,500 72,000 11,500
Non-U.S. citizen 70,000 4,000 74,000 1,500 54,000 4,500 45,000 1,000 67,000 17,500
Permanent resident 69,000 4,500 69,000 2,500 104,000 37,500 45,000 500 70,000 23,000
Temporary resident 77,000 5,000 85,000 6,500 42,000 8,500 38,000 4,500 53,000 15,500
Health and related 63,000 1,000 64,000 1,500 62,000 2,000 50,000 1,500 60,000 4,500
U.S. citizen 62,000 1,500 64,000 1,500 62,000 2,500 50,000 2,000 60,000 4,000
Native-born 60,000 1,000 63,000 1,500 60,000 1,000 50,000 1,500 59,000 2,000
Naturalized 74,000 2,500 74,000 4,500 75,000 3,000 53,000 4,500 80,000 17,500
Non-U.S. citizen 69,000 4,500 69,000 4,000 69,000 26,000 42,000 5,500 70,000 28,000
Permanent resident 65,000 7,000 62,000 7,500 161,000 40,000 S S S S
Temporary resident 85,000 6,000 85,000 3,500 59,000 5,000 D D * *
S&E manager 110,000 2,500 120,000 500 89,000 21,500 76,000 4,000 90,000 2,500
U.S. citizen 111,000 3,500 120,000 1,000 93,000 21,500 76,000 4,000 90,000 2,500
Native-born 110,000 1,500 120,000 500 80,000 28,500 76,000 4,000 89,000 4,000
Naturalized 120,000 4,000 125,000 8,000 109,000 10,500 D D 95,000 4,000
Non-U.S. citizen 100,000 5,500 100,000 4,500 S S D D 80,000 7,000
Permanent resident 110,000 11,000 113,000 13,500 S S D D 89,000 22,500
Temporary resident 88,000 6,000 89,000 6,000 D D D D D D
S&E precollege teacher 48,000 1,500 D D D D 48,000 1,500 D D
U.S. citizen 48,000 2,000 D D D D 48,000 2,000 D D
Native-born 48,000 2,500 D D D D 48,000 2,500 D D
Naturalized 42,000 9,000 D D D D 42,000 9,000 D D
Non-U.S. citizen 45,000 500 D D D D 45,000 500 D D
Permanent resident 45,000 500 D D D D 45,000 500 D D
Temporary resident 45,000 4,500 D D D D 45,000 4,500 D D
S&E technician/ technologist 70,000 1,000 71,000 2,500 38,000 2,000 44,000 2,000 65,000 6,000
U.S. citizen 70,000 1,000 70,000 2,000 41,000 4,500 S S 65,000 5,500
Native-born 70,000 1,500 70,000 1,500 40,000 2,500 S S 60,000 6,000
Naturalized 70,000 2,500 72,000 6,000 48,000 4,000 D D 71,000 3,500
Non-U.S. citizen 68,000 7,000 77,000 3,500 23,000 6,000 D D 27,000 12,500
Permanent resident 70,000 13,000 79,000 10,000 41,000 2,000 D D S S
Temporary resident 67,000 7,500 76,000 3,000 20,000 3,500 D D * *
Other S&E-related 70,000 4,500 69,000 6,500 66,000 18,500 S S 78,000 22,000
U.S. citizen 71,000 6,000 71,000 7,000 D D D D 78,000 22,000
Native-born 70,000 6,000 71,000 8,000 S S D D 77,000 22,000
Naturalized 81,000 20,000 83,000 20,500 D D D D S S
Non-U.S. citizen 64,000 3,000 64,000 3,000 D D D D D D
Permanent resident 64,000 2,500 64,000 3,000 D D D D D D
Temporary resident 57,000 17,500 64,000 16,000 D D D D D D
Non-S&E occupations 55,000 500 58,000 2,000 47,000 2,500 46,000 1,500 62,000 2,000
U.S. citizen 55,000 500 58,000 2,500 46,000 2,500 47,000 2,000 63,000 2,000
Native-born 55,000 500 60,000 1,500 46,000 2,000 47,000 2,000 63,000 2,500
Naturalized 53,000 2,500 51,000 2,500 57,000 7,000 40,000 7,000 61,000 5,000
Non-U.S. citizen 48,000 3,000 48,000 2,000 59,000 5,500 24,000 2,000 31,000 3,000
Permanent resident 40,000 3,500 41,000 4,500 65,000 3,000 24,000 3,500 31,000 4,500
Temporary resident 66,000 8,500 73,000 9,500 17,000 2,500 16,000 7,000 S S
Arts/ humanities/ related 36,000 3,000 36,000 3,000 29,000 10,500 11,000 4,500 60,000 5,000
U.S. citizen 36,000 2,500 36,000 3,000 29,000 10,500 11,000 4,500 59,000 5,500
Native-born 37,000 2,500 37,000 2,500 28,000 10,500 11,000 4,000 59,000 5,500
Naturalized 20,000 8,500 19,000 6,000 S S D D D D
Non-U.S. citizen 46,000 6,000 46,000 5,500 D D D D D D
Permanent resident 38,000 15,000 38,000 14,500 D D D D D D
Temporary resident S S S S D D D D D D
Management-related 73,000 2,500 75,000 500 63,000 5,000 47,000 2,500 74,000 4,000
U.S. citizen 73,000 2,000 75,000 3,000 61,000 5,500 47,000 2,500 74,000 4,000
Native-born 74,000 3,000 75,000 500 54,000 10,000 46,000 1,500 75,000 3,500
Naturalized 67,000 4,000 67,000 4,000 73,000 7,500 57,000 1,000 68,000 10,500
Non-U.S. citizen 78,000 5,000 80,000 5,500 66,000 3,500 S S 73,000 17,500
Permanent resident 69,000 4,000 69,000 8,500 S S S S 73,000 17,500
Temporary resident 93,000 4,000 93,000 4,000 * * D D D D
Non-S&E manager 109,000 1,500 119,000 2,000 104,000 9,500 80,000 3,500 99,000 3,500
U.S. citizen 110,000 2,500 119,000 1,000 106,000 8,500 80,000 3,500 99,000 3,500
Native-born 109,000 1,500 119,000 2,000 105,000 9,500 80,000 8,000 100,000 3,500
Naturalized 118,000 6,000 124,000 9,500 113,000 17,000 78,000 8,500 94,000 3,500
Non-U.S. citizen 99,000 1,500 99,000 1,000 92,000 10,500 S S D D
Permanent resident 99,000 5,000 99,000 5,000 90,000 16,000 S S D D
Temporary resident 98,000 32,500 98,000 33,500 D D D D D D
Non-S&E postsecondary teacher 51,000 1,500 D D 52,000 3,500 46,000 6,500 D D
U.S. citizen 51,000 2,000 D D 51,000 2,000 44,000 6,000 D D
Native-born 51,000 1,500 D D 51,000 1,500 45,000 6,500 D D
Naturalized 47,000 9,000 D D 56,000 9,500 24,000 6,000 D D
Non-U.S. citizen 54,000 6,000 D D 61,000 6,000 48,000 1,500 D D
Permanent resident 64,000 6,500 D D 79,000 12,000 49,000 1,000 D D
Temporary resident S S D D S S D D D D
Non-S&E precollege/ other teacher 43,000 2,000 D D D D 43,000 2,000 D D
U.S. citizen 44,000 2,000 D D D D 44,000 2,000 D D
Native-born 45,000 1,500 D D D D 45,000 1,500 D D
Naturalized 34,000 3,000 D D D D 34,000 3,000 D D
Non-U.S. citizen 23,000 1,500 D D D D 23,000 1,500 D D
Permanent resident 23,000 1,000 D D D D 23,000 1,000 D D
Temporary resident S S D D D D S S D D
Sales/ marketing 50,000 500 50,000 500 40,000 8,000 S S 53,000 3,500
U.S. citizen 50,000 500 50,000 500 40,000 9,500 S S 53,000 3,500
Native-born 50,000 2,000 50,000 2,000 37,000 8,500 S S 51,000 13,000
Naturalized 45,000 5,000 45,000 4,500 D D D D 53,000 15,500
Non-U.S. citizen 38,000 3,000 38,000 3,000 D D D D D D
Permanent resident 30,000 8,000 30,000 8,000 D D D D D D
Temporary resident 136,000 39,000 136,000 36,500 D D D D D D
Social service-related 41,000 1,500 36,000 1,500 42,000 3,500 52,000 1,500 46,000 2,500
U.S. citizen 41,000 1,500 36,000 1,500 42,000 3,000 52,000 1,500 47,000 2,500
Native-born 40,000 2,000 35,000 1,500 41,000 2,500 52,000 1,500 47,000 2,500
Naturalized 47,000 5,500 49,000 6,000 51,000 9,000 43,000 13,000 45,000 2,000
Non-U.S. citizen 32,000 6,500 32,000 5,000 S S S S D D
Permanent resident 32,000 7,500 32,000 5,500 S S S S D D
Temporary resident 28,000 10,000 S S D D D D D D
Other non-S&E 40,000 1,500 40,000 1,000 31,000 2,000 28,000 4,500 55,000 1,000
U.S. citizen 42,000 1,500 40,000 500 32,000 2,000 28,000 4,500 55,000 1,500
Native-born 42,000 1,500 40,000 500 31,000 2,500 28,000 5,000 55,000 1,500
Naturalized 40,000 500 40,000 1,000 37,000 11,500 33,000 8,000 55,000 2,500
Non-U.S. citizen 30,000 3,500 30,000 3,500 17,000 4,500 17,000 3,500 30,000 500
Permanent resident 25,000 2,500 24,000 1,500 28,000 11,000 S S 31,000 500
Temporary resident 45,000 4,500 46,000 2,500 9,000 4,500 D D D D

Data codes used in these tables: * = value < 500. D = suppressed to avoid disclosure of confidential information. S = suppressed for reliability; coefficient of variation exceeds publication standards.
Abbreviations used in these tables: S&E = science and engineering; SE = standard error.
NOTES: Salaries are for principal job and rounded to the nearest $1,000. Standard errors for salaries are rounded up to the nearest $500. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. Scientists and engineers are bachelor's and higher degreed individuals living in the United States with an S&E or S&E-related degree or occupation. See appendix for additional details on coverage, eligibility, educational field classification, and occupational classification. Business/industry includes self-employed individuals, nonprofit organizations, and other unspecified types of employers. Four-year college/university includes medical schools and university-affiliated research institutes. Other educational institution includes 2-year colleges, precollege institutions, and other educational institutions. Government includes federal (civilian), military, state, and local employers.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT): 2013.
Data from survey cycle 2013, as of 24 February 2015.