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Analysis Variable:   Federal Obligations for Research and Development
Description
This variable indicates Federal obligations for research and development in Science and Engineering. Research and development is defined to include all direct, indirect, incidental, or related costs resulting from or necessary to the performance of R&D by private individuals and organizations under grant, contract, or cooperative agreement. Also included are demonstration projects and research equipment. Research and development in the arts and humanities is excluded.
Research is a systematic study directed toward fuller scientific knowledge or understanding of the subject under study. Research includes both basic research and applied research. Development is a systematic use of the knowledge and understanding gained from research directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including design and development of prototypes and processes. Research and development in the arts and humanities is excluded from this variable.
Development indicates a systematic use of the knowledge and understanding gained from research directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including design and development of prototypes and processes.
Quality Control
These data have been checked and verified to correspond to data in the following NSF publication:
"Federal Science and Engineering Support to Universities, Colleges, and Nonprofit Institutions"
  
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