|Total R&D expenditures in all fields from work performed as a subrecipient and passed through by another type of pass-through entity (other than
universities or colleges). The subrecipient for an award carries out the work but receives the funds from a pass-through entity rather than directly
from the original funding source. See OMB Circular A-133, Section 105 for the federal definition. Subrecipients tend to be the co-authors of publications, writers of technical reports discussing findings, inventors, etc. Does not include vendor relationships.
Totals for 1997-2009 do not include R&D expenditures within non-S&E fields and thus are not directly comparable to 2010 and later years.